1521 — Spain: Some readers may challenge the notion Ferdinand Magellanʼs one surviving ship, the Victoria, returned to Sevilla today, arguing the ship would have had to fly over 50 miles to get there. Actually, a river connects Sevilla and itʼs "outport" Sanlucar de Barrameda, where the Victoria landed. The journey started and ended in Sevilla, but it was the outport that they reached today.
1847 — United States of America: Henry David Thoreau, having spent two years in a hut on Walden Pond "living by the labor of my hands only," moves into the Emerson household in Concord, Massachusetts. Wrote Civil Disobedience and Other Essays, among other books. "Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison." — Henry David Thoreau  
1868 — Belgium: 3rd Congrés de l'AIT, from the 6th to the 13th, in Brussels. Attending delegat català. Antoni Marsal i Anglora (pseudònim de Sarro Magallán). He presents a report for the Societats Obreres de Catalunya (informe) [Source: Congressos Obrers]
1869 — Switzerland: 4th Congrés de l'AIT, from the 6th to the 12th, in Basel. Participants include Rafael Farga Pellicer and Gaspar de Sentiñon, representing the Centre Federal de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. [Source: Congressos Obrers]
1890 — When the captain of the Roi des Belges succumbs to tropical fever on the Congo River, Joseph Conrad is made master of the ship, an experience he will later draw upon for Heart of Darkness and An Outpost of Progress. 
1892 — United States of America: George "Little Chocolate" Dixon beats Jack Skelly in New Orleans to win the world featherweight title. While some African-American citizens celebrate for two days, the "New Orleans Times-Democrat" says, "It was a mistake to match a Negro and a white man… to bring the races together on any terms of equality even in the prize ring."
1893 — United States of America: New York Grand Jury indicts the anarchist feminist Emma Goldman on three charges. She is returned from Philadelphia to New York on September 9, where she is placed in confinement. On September 11, she pleads not guilty; released on bail September 14. A benefit concert on September 23 intended to raise money for Goldmanʼs defense is a financial failure.
1899 — United States of America: In the mining town of Spring Valley, Illinois, Emma Goldman heads a Labor Day procession, which ends with a meeting in the central market place, a direct violation of the mayorʼs denial of authorization to do so.
1900 — French-American writer Julien Green lives, Paris. He wrote only one book in English, Memories of Happy Days (1942), but his work in French elevates him… on a level with Paul Valéry, Marcel Proust, and André Gide. [Details / context]
1901 — United States of America: President William McKinley shot by professed anarchist Leon Czolgosz who previously had been repudiated by numerous anarchist groups. Police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of Emma Goldmanʼs lectures and she is arrested in Chicago in a few days; eventually the case against her is dropped.
1920 — Russia: Àngel Pestaña leaves, profoundly disillusioned by all that he has observed after spending several months in Moscow. Pestaña was a CNT delegate to Second Congress of the Third International which opened in Moscow on 1920 July 15. Pestana told the congress: "You tell us that the revolution cannot take place without a communist party and that without the conquest of political power emancipation is not possible, and that without dictatorship one cannot destroy the bourgeoisie: all these assertions are absolutely gratuitous."
1934 — Italy: In un discorso a Bari Mussolini irride alle dottrine razziste del nazional socialismo tedesco. Tre anni dopo saranno fatte proprie da questo buffone senza spina dorsale.  [Source: Crimini e Misfatti]
1939 — Arthur Rackham, British illustrator, dies. Many illustrators since, particularly in fantasy works, have been obviously influenced by his work, and books including his illustrations are highly sought after….
1947 — High Seas: In Operation Sandy the US Navy launched a captured German V-2 rocket from the deck of the USS Midway.
1947 — United States of America: Three hundred and two persons are finally released from Crystal City, Texas and Seabrook Farms, New Jersey. On 1947 June 30 U.S. District Judge Louis E. Goodman orders that the petitioners in Wayne Collins' suit of 1945 December 13 be released; he rules that native-born American citizens cannot be converted to enemy aliens and can not be imprisioned or sent to Japan on the basis of renunciation.
1960 — Proclamation of the 121, Declaration on the right to insubordination in the war of Algeria. 121 writers, academics and artists make public the following text (in Truth-Freedom, No 4, September-October 1960; this number was seized and its staff accused of provoking soldiers to disobedience). The signatories face severe sanctions…
1963 — Austria: The government protests against the Italian state for the acquittal of police officers responsible for torturing exponents of the sudtirolese irredentismo and accuse the Italian government of violating the European convention of the Rights of Man. [Source: Crimini e Misfatti]
1965 — The Blues Project opens at the Matrix, San Francisco.
1967 — England: The government takes out newspaper advertisements explaining its recent legislation outlawing pirate radio. Prime reason, supposedly, is interference with ship-to-shore radio frequencies caused by pirate radio stations broadcasting from boats anchored off Britainʼs coast.
1969 — After a show in the Memphis Mid-Southern Coliseum, James Brown announces his retirement from live performance after 1970 July 4. The hardest working man in show business says heʼs tired. At the same time, heʼs fighting a paternity suit filed in Sacramento, California by a one-time president of the local James Brown fan club. 
1972 — John and Yoko appear on Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Telethon, performing their hit tune: "Woman is the Nigger of the World."
1974 — Italy: Housing occupations and barricade of San Bailio neighborhood of Rome, forcing legislation to legalize squatting. The City of Miami and Dade County addressed the issue of homelessness by raising millions of dollars through a penny sales tax on beverages and created a trust to dispense the funds. The funds were used to demolish all the known shanty towns and fence out most of the homeless from each location. This evacuation of over 1,000 homeless people living in encampments began in 1994 in conjunction with Miami’s hosting of the “Summit of the Americas”. Almost all of the camps were bulldozed and the inhabitants were offered short term substance abuse counseling.  
1978 — United States of America: House Select Committee on Assassinations opens hearings into the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The committee recessed on December 30 after concluding conspiracies were likely in both cases, but with no further evidence for further prosecutions. 
1978 — Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid, dies in Edinburgh. In 1922, he founded the monthly Scottish Chapbook, a journal dedicated to a Scottish literary revival. His later style returns to standard English and include A Kist of Whistles (1947) and In Memoriam James Joyce (1955). Autobiographical volumes include Lucky Poet (1943) and The Company I've Kept (1966). Bleedster Paul notes: Caledonian Antizyzgy, life of the party, and ʼturrible little mon' Hugh MacDiarmid, having written or edited over 17 books, dies. . . Like his support of the Communist Party after the Hungarian Uprising, he does this just to be contrary. 
1979 — Puerto Rico, US Colony: President Jimmy Carter grants executive clemency, freeing Nationalists: Lolita Lebrón, Andrés Figueroa Cordero, Rafael Cancel Miranda and Irving Flores, all in prison since 1954.
1984 — United States of America: Texass Reverend W. A. Criswell, who recently delivered the closing benediction at the GOP convention, says he thinks "this thing of separation of church and state is a figment of some infidelʼs imagination."
1987 — Venice: Regatta takes place without any gondoliers for the first time since 1315 — they are on strike to protest the damage caused to the city by powerboats. Source: 'Calendar Riots'
1988 — United States of America: Seven arrested in protests at uranium processing plant, Fernald, Ohio. The Fernald plant is later revealed to be among the worst polluters in the entire US nuclear industry.
1993 — Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar says Gypsies constitute a (quote) "socially unadaptable population" with (quote) "children, simply, who are a great burden on this society." Many of the Gypsies' economic and social protections in Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia have gone the way of communism. Gypsies, who call themselves the Roma, are suffering a revival of persecution marring their history in Europe since they migrated from Hindu India in the 11th century. Jozef Pacai, mayor of the Czech city Medzev, has suggested that the only solution is selectively killing Gypsies.