According to historian Paul Avrich, August Spies, one of the famous Haymarket martyrs, "noted that this was the first occasion on which [the black flag] had been unfurled on American soil."
According to historian George Woodcock, the earliest instance found of anarchists using a black flag is by Louise Michel, who flew it in Paris on March 9, 1883 during a militant demonstration of the unemployed.
1898 -- US: Emma Goldman (November-December) supports efforts of Alexander Berkman's defense committee to seek a pardon. With Justus Schwab & Edward Brady, she reluctantly follows the recommendation of defense attorneys to seek Andrew Carnegie's influence in granting a pardon. They approach Benjamin Tucker, anarchist editor of Liberty, to meet with Carnegie, but reject his suggestion that Berkman be presented as a "penitent sinner." All plans to meet with Carnegie are eventually abandoned.
1920 -- Russia: Leon Trotsky (aka "The Red Butcher") orders an attack on Nestor Makhno's headquarters. Yesterday Makhno's anarchist commanders were executed after being lured to a meeting with Trotsky under a flag of truce. The Cheka simultaneously arrests members of the Nabat Confederation in Kharkov & raids anarchist clubs & organizations throughout Russia.
1991 -- Visionary videographer Harry Smith dies, Chelsea Hotel, New York City. Early childhood was spent in the Pacific Northwest, Portland, Anacortes & Bellingham. By the age of 15 Harry had spent time recording many Indian songs & rituals, & was compiling a dictionary of several Puget Sound dialects. Studied anthropology at the University of Washington for five semesters between 1942 & 1944. Experienced marijuana & dropped out of college.
- The oldest survivor of the hundreds of underground
- papers started nationwide in the 1960s is Detroit's
- Fifth Estate.
- In its 35th anniversary issue, the paper describes itself
- as the longest-running English-language anarchist
- journal in U.S. history.
2004: Italy: An initiative passed in Livorno recognizing "Virgilio Antonelli 1904 - 2004: A Livornese anarchist fighter against fascism..." (title of the initiative). An Italian partisan guerrilla during WWII, distinguishing himself in the liberating of hostages & prisoners.
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[èfr. 27 novembre]]