Death of Khaled Mohamed Saeed
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Khaled Mohamed Saeed
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Khaled Mohamed Saeed (Arabic: خالد محمد سعيد Template:IPA-arz; January 27, 1982 – June 6, 2010, age 28) was a young Egyptian man who was beaten to death by Egyptian police officers in the Wikipedia:Sidi Gaber area of Wikipedia:Alexandria on June 6, 2010. In October 2011, two Egyptian police officers were found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to seven years in prison for beating Saeed to death.
Photos of his disfigured corpse spread throughout online communities, as (what were at the time) allegations that he was beaten to death by Egyptian security forces incited outrage. A prominent Wikipedia:Facebook group, "We are all Khaled Said", moderated by Wikipedia:Wael Ghonim, brought attention to his death and contributed to growing discontent in the weeks leading up to the Wikipedia:Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
Non-civilian attack on civilian, Coordinates 31.220278 x 29.941667 June 6, 2010
 Personal life
Saeed was raised by his mother and the rest of his extended family after the death of his father when he was young. Showing an interest in computers, he stayed for some time and studied computer programming in the United States. He also loved music and had been composing a musical piece before his death.
On June 6, 2010, Saeed had been sitting on the second floor of a Wikipedia:cybercafe. Two detectives from the Wikipedia:Sidi Gaber police station entered the premises and arrested him, beating him and smashing him against objects as he was led outside to their police car.
Two police officers were later jailed for four days pending questioning on beatings that they allegedly carried out on Saeed. Saeed's family members stated that Saeed was "tortured to death for possessing video material that implicates members of the police in a drug deal."
The photo of Saeed's corpse was released onto the internet in June of 2010, causing a large outcry and the creation of a FacebookWP memorial page for Saeed that has attracted hundreds of thousands of followers. It was only because of the photo and the heavy amount of international criticism that arose from the incident that the Egyptian government consented to a trial for the two detectives involved in his death.
Multiple witnesses testified that Saeed was beaten to death by the police, who hit him and smashed him against objects as he was led outside to their police car. The owner of the internet cafe in which Saeed was arrested stated that he witnessed Saeed being beaten to death in the doorway of the building across the street after the detectives took him out of the cafe at the owner's request.
'We thought they would just interrogate him or ask him questions. But they took him as he struggled with his hands behind his back and banged his head against the marble table inside here,' Mosbah said in an interview conducted by a journalist from the liberal opposition al-Ghad newspaper. Mosbah said he told the police to take it outside and they hauled Said into the doorway of a nearby building. He did not emerge alive, said the cafe owner.
During an interview with the opposition party, El-Ghad's, newspaper, Mosbah described, "They dragged him to the adjacent building and banged his head against an iron door, the steps of the staircase and walls of the building...Two doctors happened to be there and tried in vain to revive him but (the police) continued beating him...They continued to beat him even when he was dead". This description given by the owner was confirmed by the Wikipedia:Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.
Former chief medical examiner of Egypt, Ayman Fouda, was interviewed about the proper procedure that should have been followed for Saeed's autopsy. He stated that the "mechanics of the injuries" that Saeed had sustained should have been investigated and his brain should have also been tested to see whether he had had a concussion, as the medical examiner that had conducted the autopsy had done neither.
The police reported that Saeed suffocated in an attempt to swallow a packet of Wikipedia:hashish, a claim supported by two autopsy reports made by Forensic Authorities. The police further stated that Saeed was "wanted for theft and weapons possession and that he resisted arrest."
 Post-mortem photographs go viral
When Saaed's family visited his body in the morgue, his brother snapped pictures of the corpse using his mobile phone. The photo of Saeed's corpse was released onto the internet by Saeed's family in June 2010, causing a large outcry. Wikipedia:Human Rights Watch released a press report about the photo that stated, "Photos of Said's battered and deformed face published on the internet show a fractured skull, dislocated jaw, broken nose, and numerous other signs of trauma" and also that the image clearly showed "strong evidence that plainclothes security officers beat him in a vicious and public manner."
 We are all Khaled Said
Among those who saw the photo, was Google marketing executive Wikipedia:Wael Ghonim. Ghonim was located in Wikipedia:Dubai at the time of the incident and decided to create a Wikipedia:Facebook memorial page for Saeed, called "We are all Khaled Said". The page attracted hundreds of thousands of followers, becoming Egypt's biggest dissident Facebook page. Support for Saeed rapidly spread, with many Facebook members using his photograph for their own profiles.
Because of the photo and the heavy amount of international criticism that arose from the incident, the Egyptian government consented to a trial for the two detectives involved in his death.
 Alexandria protests
On June 25, 2010, Wikipedia:Mohamed ElBaradei, former head of the Wikipedia:International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in Alexandria against alleged abuses by the police and visited Saeed's family to offer condolences. Protests over Saeed's death also occurred in Cairo's Wikipedia:Tahrir Square and in front of the Egyptian Embassy in Wikipedia:London. Thirty of the protesters in Tahrir Square were arrested by Central Security officers after the "security personnel vigorously beat back the crowds to keep them from reaching the ministry building."
 Impact on the 2011 Egyptian revolution
- See also: 2011 Egyptian protests
One of the earliest pre-revolution articles to link the death of Saeed to an imminent nationwide explosion came from Saeed's neighbor, Egyptian-Australian Amro Ali. In an opinion piece titled "Egypt's Collision Course with History", Ali writes an intimate portrayal of Saeed and the Alexandria context, as well as the ramifications of his death for the regime. Ali states "Saeed’s tragedy is Egypt’s tragedy. A young man, neither a political activist nor religious radical, but an ordinary Egyptian whose accused actions could not in any way warrant his lynching. Saeed was someone’s son, someone’s brother, someone’s friend, someone’s neighbour, someone’s customer, and if not for what had happened, someone’s future. Saeed was, in the local vernacular, a son of Cleopatra [Saeed's suburb]. Yet the system that was supposed to protect him and give him his rights, took away those rights by taking away his life...It is one extra nail in the coffin of the ever-widening gulf between the ruler and ruled...What the Egyptian establishment maybe forgetting...is that pigeons come home to roost more than once".
While the actual impact of Ghonim's site cannot be determined, it was Ghonim who first published a call to protest on January 25, to the followers of his blog, and protesters carried banners and posters displaying the photograph of Saaed's corpse. This has been named one of the catalysts of the Wikipedia:2011 Egyptian protests, as an instance in which people formed a community around opposition to police brutality and, by extension, other government abuses. On February 11, 2011, these protests resulted in the resignation of Wikipedia:Hosni Mubarak after 30 years in power. Wikipedia:ABC News characterized Saaed in his morgue photo as "The Face That Launched a Revolution". The Washington Post wrote that "Had it not been for a leaked morgue photo of his mangled corpse, tenacious relatives and the power of Facebook, the death of Khaled Said would have become a footnote in the annals of Egyptian police brutality. Instead, outrage over the beating death of the 28-year-old man in this coastal city last summer, and attempts by local authorities to cover it up, helped spark the mass protests demanding the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak."
 Investigation and trial of the police officers
The investigation into Saeed's death yielded 300 papers, analysis and testimony which informed the decision to charge both police officers, Mahmoud Salah Mahmoud and Awad Ismael Suleiman, in criminal court with use of violence and unjustified detention of the victim. They were detained in July 2010, and the trial began in July but was postponed and did not resume until February 2011 when it was postponed again.
On 24 September 2011 Alexandria's criminal court adjourned the trial until 22 October 2011 as Judge Moussa al-Nahrawy decided to postpone the case to allow both the plaintiff’s and the defendants’ lawyers to review the report of a third forensic committee, whose formation the court had ordered in June 2011.
On 26 October 2011, both plaintiffs were found guilty of manslaughter and were sentenced to seven years. Human rights activists, such as the Wikipedia:Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, objected to the short sentences. The two officers were convicted of using excessive force which killed Saeed but were not convicted of the more serious charge of "torture with the purpose of killing" which is a capital crime. Organizations such as the Wikipedia:April 6 Youth Movement and the Wikipedia:25 Revolution Youth Union also criticized the verdict for its leniency.
 See also
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "Egypt jails police over activist Khaled Said's death". BBC News. 26 October 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/15467022.</li>
- ↑ Anger on the streets of Cairo The National (Abu Dhabi), 2010-06-13</li>
- ↑ Anger on the streets of Cairo, Wikipedia:The National (Abu Dhabi), 2010-06-13</li>
- ↑ [url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e41c5faa-3475-11e0-9ebc-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1DfvBdbyf Google worker is Egypt’s Facebook hero], February 9, 2011 Wikipedia:Financial Times</li>
- ↑ Q&A with Ali Qassem, uncle of slain youth Khaled Saeed (part one), Lina Attalah Almasry Alyoum, June 30, 2010</li>
- ↑ Two witnesses affirm Alex victim beaten by police Almasry Alyoum June 19, 2010</li>
- ↑ Two witnesses affirm Alex victim beaten by police Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum June 19, 2010</li>
- ↑ "Egyptian protesters see policemen's jailing in activist's death as a victory". Wikipedia:Gulf News. 2010-07-02. http://gulfnews.com/news/region/egypt/egyptian-protesters-see-policemen-s-jailing-in-activist-s-death-as-a-victory-1.649353. Retrieved 2010-07-13.</li>
- ↑ "Police killing sparks Egypt protest". Al Jazeera English. June 14, 2010. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2010/06/201061415530298271.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011.</li>
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Noha El-Hennawy (August 4, 2010). "We are all Khaled Saeed: Redefining political demonstration in Egypt". Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/we-are-all-khaled-saeed-redefining-political-demonstration-egypt. Retrieved January 27, 2011.</li>
- ↑ Anger in Alexandria: 'We’re afraid of our own government' |publisher=Almasry Alyoum|date=2010-06-25|accessdate=2010-07-13}}</li>
- ↑ Anger in Alexandria: 'We’re afraid of our own government', Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum, 2010-06-25</li>
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Paul Schemm (June 13, 2010). "Egypt cafe owner describes police beating death". Wikipedia:The San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2010/jun/13/egypt-cafe-owner-describes-police-beating-death/. Retrieved February 3, 2011.</li>
- ↑ Dareen Farghaly (June 30, 2010). "Interview: Former chief medical examiner on Khaled Saeed autopsy". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/53003. Retrieved January 26, 2011.</li>
- ↑ "Journalists protest state media coverage of Alexandria police killing". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. 2010-06-230. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/52970. Retrieved 2010-07-13.</li>
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Ben Wedeman (June 25, 2010). "Demonstrators in Egypt rail against brutality, man's death". Wikipedia:CNN. http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-25/world/egypt.police.beating_1_brutality-mohamed-elbaradei-egyptian?_s=PM:WORLD. Retrieved February 3, 2011.</li>
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Ross, Brian; Matthew Cole (2011). "Egypt: The Face That Launched A Revolution". Wikipedia:ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/egypt-face-launched-revolution/story?id=12841488&page=1. Retrieved 19 March 2011.</li>
- ↑ Ahmed Shalaby Mostafa ElMarsfawy (12/07/2010). "Al-Masry Al-Youm Exclusive: Khaled Saeed Case Investigation". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/node/55686.</li>
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 Preston, Jennifer (February 5, 2011). "Facebook and YouTube Fuel the Egyptian Protests". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/06/world/middleeast/06face.html.</li>
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 Heaven, Will (2011). Egypt and Facebook: Time to Update Its Status. Nato Review. Wikipedia:NATO. URL accessed on 19 March 2011.</li>
- ↑ Nadia abou el Magd (2 July 2010). "Undercover Police Arrested Over Beating Death of Egyptian Man". The National. http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/africa/undercover-police-arrested-over-beating-death-of-egyptian-man. Retrieved 19 March 2011.</li>
- ↑ Noha El-Hennawy (August 4, 2010). "We are all Khaled Saeed: Redefining political demonstration in Egypt". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/61266. Retrieved January 27, 2011.</li>
- ↑ "ElBaradei leads anti-torture rally". Wikipedia:Al Jazeera English. 2010-06-26. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2010/06/201062642955204618.html. Retrieved 2010-07-13.</li>
- ↑ Nadia Abou el Magd, "Egypt's ElBaradei leads thousands in protest against police", The National, Jun 26, 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-06.</li>
- ↑ Heba El Kodsy; Mohamed Hany (June 17, 2010). "Weekend protests in US and UK against Khaled Saeed's murder". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/49944. Retrieved January 26, 2011.</li>
- ↑ Mostafa; ElMarsfawy; Mohsan Semika; Mohamed Hany (June 21, 2010). "Security thwarts protest over Saeed's death". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/50719. Retrieved January 26, 2011.</li>
- ↑ Ali, Amro Egypt's Collision Course With History. Online Opinion. URL accessed on 6 June 2011.</li>
- ↑ Namatalla, Ahmed A; Fam, Mariam; Mazen, Maram (2011-02-11). "Mubarak Resigns as Egyptian President". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-11/mubarak-leaves-presidency-hands-power-to-egypt-s-military-suleiman-says.html. Retrieved 2011-02-11.</li>
- ↑ Londono, Ernesto (9 February 2011). "Egyptian Man's Death Became Symbol of Callous State". Wikipedia:Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/08/AR2011020806360.html. Retrieved 19 March 2011.</li>
- ↑ exclusive: Khaled Saeed case investigation | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt. Al-Masry Al-Youm. URL accessed on 2011-03-23.</li>
- ↑ 2 Alex policemen detained in Khaled Saeed case | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt. Al-Masry Al-Youm. URL accessed on 2011-03-23.</li>
- ↑ Alexandria’s Khaled Saeed police brutality trial postponed | Al-Masry Al-Youm: Today's News from Egypt. Al-Masry Al-Youm. URL accessed on 2011-03-23.</li>
- ↑ Khaled Said verdict – and Egyptian justice – delayed again. Wikipedia:Christian Science Monitor. URL accessed on 2011-07-1.</li>
- ↑ Al-Masry Al-Youm 24 September 2011: Khaled Saeed’s trial adjourned to 22 October. Almasryalyoum.com. URL accessed on 2011-10-01.</li>
- ↑ Al-Masry Al-Youm 24 September 2011: Khaled Saeed murder trial adjourned for study of latest forensics report. Almasryalyoum.com. URL accessed on 2011-10-01.</li>
- ↑ "Two policemen convicted in Khaled Saeed murder case". al-Masry al-Youm. 26 October 2011. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/508951.</li>
- ↑ "Rights group demands heavier sentence in Khaled Saeed case". al-Masry al-Youm. 27 October 2011. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/509283.</li></ol>
 External links
- Hassan Nafaa (June 15, 2010). "The Alexandria crime's political significance". Wikipedia:Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/49278. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- "Egyptian citizen tortured to death". April 6 Youth Movement. July 5, 2010. http://6april.org/english/modules/news/article.php?storyid=1. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- We are all Khaled Said on Wikipedia:Facebook
 Further reading
- Hassan Nafaa (June 15, 2010). "The Alexandria crime's political significance". Almasry Alyoum. http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/opinion/alexandria-crimes-political-significance. Retrieved January 26, 2011.arz:خالد سعيد