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Crime refers to an action or the perpetration of actions which are detrimental to the rights of either a single individual or a society. The perception and definition of crime and punishment can expand and narrow between any jurisdiction, depending upon the moral or other code by which the local governing authority governs the actions of its population; this can be influenced by the religious or political inclinations or sentiments of those who rule or are in a power of governance in that area.
- Exceptions to the rule that crime is punished: Category:De facto legality, Category:State crime
- Exceptions to the rule that crime is punished by institutionalized vengeance: Category:Restitution
- Exceptions to the rule that crime is actions that harm others: Category:Victimless crimes (Crimes with De Facto legality may be victimless, and the state may be unable or unwilling to investigate or prosecute
- Exceptions to the rule that the state is law-abiding: Category:Extrajudicial
Several types of crime exist according to the jurisdiction and time in which such actions which are classified as crime are committed:
- Crime against the person
- Identity theft
- Manslaughter (and corporate manslaughter)
- Crime against property
- False pretenses
- Crime against the public order
- Drug possession
- Crime against the state
- Tax evasion
- Crime against humanity and international law
- crimes against peace
- waging a war of aggression
- crimes of apartheid
- war crimes
- the slave trade
- Crime against justice and judicial institutions
- Misprision of felony
- Malfeasance in office
- Inchoate offenses
- Common purpose
After a crime is committed
The action that is considered as a crime is usually followed by
- an accusation against the perceived perpetrator
- arrest and incarceration of the alleged perpetrator until the bail can be paid or until a formal indictment
- investigation in the jurisdiction of the crime (which, if the alleged perpetrator is determined by the investigation, results in the next step)
- a formal charge and accusation of crime lodged by the investigatory agency (based on the findings of the investigation) to the judicial officers
- an indictment of the alleged perpetrator by the court
- the appointment of both a defense lawyer by or for the accused and a Prosecutor for either the state or the plaintiff
- a trial by jury, where the lawyers represent their respective sides and question their witnesses, accused and investigators on the stand.
- deliberation and voting by the jury in private.
- a verdict announced to the court by an appointed announcer-member of the jury
- if innocent, the release of the accused by the judge and the adjourning of the trial. if guilty, the eventual announcement of a selected and determined sentence of the accused.
- if guilty, the eventual beginning of incarceration of the accused in a prison or rehabilitation facility, with or without parole (in several jurisdictions for certain crimes that are considered especially heinous, the eventual serving of a capital punishment upon the accused if all appeals have been exhausted).
- Appeals by the defense to the court for either re-opening the case for further review (in the hope of a sooner release) or for reduction of the sentence's severity in return for a plea bargain.
- If not a capital punishment or lifelong sentence, Parole and probation for a number of years following release until the accused is determined as having been fully rehabilitated and reformed for societal living and respect of the rights of others.