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anarchism in Africa
Anarchism and traditional cultures
The reason why traditional African societies are characterized as "anarchies" is because of their horizontal political structure and absence of classes. In addition to that leadership of elders normally did not transcend into the authoritative structure, which characterizes the modern state (see also Pierre Clastres' thesis expounded in Society Against the State).
A strong value was however placed on traditional and "natural" values. So for example, although there were no laws against rape, homicide, adultery, and witchcraft, a person committing those acts would be persecuted together with his or her kin. The principle of collective responsibility was sometimes upheld.
Starting in the 15th century the class system began to form in the last empires of Africa, although it had already existed in some African civilizations (such as Nubia, Egypt, Axum and Hausa) for millennia. However, many societies have until this day remained as what is called â€œtribes without rulersâ€, a form of â€œordered anarchyâ€.
African anarchism in literature
- "Anarchism and Revolutionary Syndicalism in South Africa, 1904-1921" by Lucien van der Walt
- "Military Dictatorship and the State in Africa" by Samuel Mbah and I.E. Igariwey, an anarchist critique of the African military dictatorships.
- "Toward The African Revolution" by Frantz Fanon ISBN 0-8021-3090-9
- "African Anarchism: The History of a Movement" by Sam Mbah and I. E. Igariwey 
- Anarchy in Somalia
- Black anarchism
- Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Federation
- List of anarchist organisations in Africa
- Abahlali baseMjondolo South African shack dwellers' movement that chooses direct democracy via popular assemblies and refuses parliamentary politics
- African Anarchism: The History of a Movement
- African Anarchism, freedom and revolution in Africa
- An Irish anarchist in Africa An introduction to today's western Africa from Anarchist perspective.
- Towards a Vibrant & Broad African-Based Anarchism
anarchism in: Algeria • Angola • Benin • Botswana • Burkina Faso • Burundi • Cameroon • Cape Verde • Central African Republic • Chad • Comoros • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Republic of the Congo • CÃ´te d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) • Djibouti • Egypt • Equatorial Guinea • Eritrea • Ethiopia • Gabon • The Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Kenya • Lesotho • Liberia • Libya • Madagascar • Malawi • Mali • Mauritania • Mauritius • Morocco • Mozambique • Namibia • Niger • Nigeria • Rwanda • SÃ£o TomÃ© and PrÃncipe • Senegal • Seychelles • Sierra Leone • Somalia • South Africa • Sudan • Swaziland • Tanzania • Togo • Tunisia • Uganda • Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) • Zambia • Zimbabwe
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