Pittsburgh (pronounced Template:IPA) is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Built on the land between the confluence of the Allegheny, Ohio and Monongahela rivers and the surrounding hills, Pittsburgh features a skyline of 151 skyscrapers, 720 bridges, two inclines, and a pre-revolutionary fortification. Residents of the city are called Pittsburghers, though at times affectionately reffered to as Yinzers.
Once fueled by heavy manufacturing the collapse of the United States steel industry in the 1980s shifted Pittsburgh's economy toward healthcare, education, technology, and financial services. Robotics, in particular, is a major sector of the local economy; the Wall Street Journal dubbed the city "Roboburgh."
Despite a declining population, Pittsburgh remains the chief city of the eastern Ohio River Valley. Because of its low cost of living, economic opportunities, education, transportational and medical infrastructures, Pittsburgh consistently is ranked high in livability studies, being ranked the most livable city in the United States in 2007 by the Places Rated Alamanac.
The first Europeans in what would become Pittsburgh arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to pen a report on the forks of the Ohio in 1717. About this same time trading camps boasted the first settlers in the area. In 1749 French soliders from Quebec launched a serious expedition to the forks in hopes of uniting French Canada with French Louisiana via rivers. 1751 saw the first French fortifications on the forks. The Pennsylvanians and Virginians had other ideas about the French incursions and sent Virginian George Washington to gather information on the French buildup in the area in 1753. The future father of America almost drowned to death crossing the ice logged Allegheny River in his service. During 1753–1754 the English hastily built Fort Prince George, but it was too late a large French force had mobilized and took the English hold on the forks of the Ohio and all western waters without bloodshed in late 1754. The French built a more well planned out Fort Duquesne to control the choke point of North American trade. These advances led to French and Indian War, and for Pittsburgh resulted in British at first launching a failed mission to capture the French fort with General Braddock and Colonel George Washington, then a successful campaign led by General John Forbes against the French at Pittsburgh. After having the French surrender Ft. Duquesne in 1758, he ordered the construction of Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder. He also named the settlement between the rivers "Pittsborough."
During Pontiac's Rebellion, Ohio Valley and Great Lakes tribes besieged Fort Pitt for two months. Fort Pitt, unlike Detriot, Mackinac, and other major forts on the frontier was the only one to withstand the indian uprising and not surrender. In many ways it was Ft. Pitt that assured western expansion by defeating the last great indian rebellion. Colonel Bouquet defeated Pontiac's forces in the Battle of Bushy Run just to the east of the forks.
In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the descendants of William Penn, purchased from the Six Nations western lands that included most of the present site of Pittsburgh. In 1769, a survey was made of the land situated between the two rivers, called the "Manor of Pittsburgh." Both Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the Pittsburgh area during colonial times and would continue to do so until 1780 when both states agreed to extend the Mason-Dixon Line westward placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania.
The Fort Pitt Blockhouse
, dating to 1764, is the oldest extant structure in the city of Pittsburgh.
Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was building boats for settlers to enter the Ohio Country. In 1784, the laying out of the "Town of Pittsburgh" was completed by Thos. Vicroy of Bedford County and approved by the attorney of the Penns in Philadelphia. The year 1794 saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion. The Act of March 5, 1804, which modified the provision of the old charter of the Borough of Pittsburgh in 1794—the original of which is not in existence, so far as known—refers throughout to the "Borough of Pittsburgh."Template:Facts
The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American manufacture. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin and glass products. The Act of March 18, 1816, incorporated the City of Pittsburgh. The original charter was burned when the old Court House was destroyed by fire. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. A great fire burned over a thousand buildings in 1845, but the city rebuilt. By 1857, Pittsburgh's nearly 1,000 factories burned 22,000,000 bushels of coal yearly.
The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased production of iron and armaments. Steel production began by 1875, when Andrew Carnegie founded the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works in Braddock, which eventually evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. The success and growth of Carnegie Steel was attributed to Henry Bessemer, the Bessemer Process.
Monongahela River Scene, 1857
In 1901, the U.S. Steel Corporation formed. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing between a third and a half of the nation's various types of steel. The city's population swelled to half a million, many of whom were immigrants from Europe. During World War II, Pittsburgh produced 95 million tons of steel. By this time, the pollution from burning coal and steel production created a black fog (or smog).
Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the "Renaissance II" project, begun in 1977 and focusing more on cultural and neighborhood development than its predecessor. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, the steel industry in the region imploded, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Beginning in the 1980s, the city shifted its economic base to services, tourism, medicine and high technology. During this transition, the city population shrank from 680,000 in 1950 to 330,000 in 2000.
Multiple organ transplants were pioneered in Pittsburgh by Dr. Thomas Starzl in 1983 and Pittsburgh hospitals remain premier medical research institutions.
 Name and spelling
Pittsburgh was officially named with its present spelling on April 22, 1794, by an act of the Pennsylvania Department, stating: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the said town of Pittsburgh shall be, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. For this reason it is also the most commonly misspelled city in America. While briefly referred to as "Pittsburg" during the late 19th century, in 1911 the Pittsburgh spelling was officially restored.
 Geography and climate
Pittsburgh is located at 40°26′29″N, 79°58′38″W (40.441419, -79.977292).Template:GR According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 151.1 km² (58.3 mi²). 144.0 km² (55.6 mi²) of it is land and 7.2 km² (2.8 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 4.75% water.
The city is located on the Allegheny Plateau, where the confluence of the Allegheny River from the Northeast and Monongahela River from the Southeast form the Ohio River. The area between the rivers is known as the Golden Triangle, the extremity of which is The Point. Pittsburgh occupies the Golden Triangle as well as the slopes of the river valleys, and the ridges beyond. Many of the city's neighborhoods, particularly south of the Monongahela, are steeply sloped.
This topography is often utilized for physical activity. The city's steps—some 712 sets comprising 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet (more then San Francisco, Portland and Cincinnati combined) are a major fitness attraction
. There are hundreds of 'paper streets' composed entirely of steps and many other steep streets with steps for sidewalks . Many provide views of the Pittsburgh area.
Steep hills and variable weather make biking challenging and rewarding. The city has established bike trails and walking trails along its riverfronts and hollows. Soon the city will be connected to downtown Washington, D.C. by a continuous bike/running trail through the Alleghenies and along the Potomac Valley, about 95% of this trail length is already completed.
Due to its position between the Great Lakes and the windward side of the Allegheny mountains, Pittsburgh receives plentiful precipitation which supports the region's lush vegetation.
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
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| Norm Low °F
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|Source: USTravelWeather.com 
Street in Shadyside, a neighborhood in the East End
- See also: List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods
The city can be broken down into the downtown area, called the Golden Triangle, and four main areas surrounding it. These four surrounding areas are further subdivided into distinct neighborhoods. These areas, relative to downtown, are known as the North Side, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.
The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to many popular attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory installation art museum, Pittsburgh Children's Museum, Penn Brewery and Allegheny Observatory.
City Skyline at Dusk, from Station Square
The South Side was once an area composed primarily of dense inexpensive housing for mill workers, but has in recent years become a local Pittsburgher destination. In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works property, and worked together with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development including a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and the Pittsburgh Steelers and Panthers indoor practice fields.Construction began in 1998, and the Southside Works is now open for business. The Southside Works is a new shopping/entertainment complex that has recently been added to the neighborhood with grand vistas of downtown across the river and the new headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters. The South Side's E. Carson St. is one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, pulsing nightlife and live music venues.
The East End is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute (Museums of Art and Natural History), Frick Art and Historical Center (Clayton and the Frick art museum), Phipps Conservatory, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods featuring large shopping/business districts. Oakland is home to most of the universities and graduate as well as undergraduate students as well as to Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Strip District is a popular open-air marketplace by day and one of Pittsburgh's hottest clubbing destinations by night.
Lawrenceville residential street; rowhouses are common in many Pittsburgh neighborhoods
The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its view of the Downtown skyline.
Pittsburgh is a patchwork of neighborhoods, many of which still retain an ethnic character reflecting the city's immigrant history. This includes African American (Hill District, Homewood), Jewish (Squirrel Hill), Irish American, Italian American (Bloomfield), German American (Troy Hill), East Allegheny) and Eastern European such as Polish (South Side, Lawrenceville, Polish Hill).
Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages giving a more characteristic suburban feel. Other neighborhoods, such as Oakland, in which are located the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University, are characterized by a more diverse, urban feel.
Downtown Pittsburgh is tight and compact, featuring many skyscrapers, 9 of which top 500 feet. U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest at 841 feet. The Cultural District comprises a 14 block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. It is packed with theatres and arts venues, and is seeing a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on Riverparc, a 4-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20–30 stories. The Firstside portion of downtown borders the Monongahela River and the historic Mon Wharf. This area is home to the distinctive PPG Place gothic glass skyscraper complex. This area too, is seeing a growing residential sector, as new condo towers are constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use. Downtown is serviced by a subway and multiple bridges leading north and south. It is also home to Point Park University, Pittsburgh Art Institute, Pittsburgh Culinary Institute, a Robert Morris University campus and Duquesne University which is located on the border of Downtown and Uptown.
According to the 2000 census there were 334,563 individuals, 143,739 households, and 74,169 families within the city limits. The population of the surrounding metropolitan area was 2,358,695. The largest groups in terms of race were 67.63% Caucasian, 27.12% African American, 2.75% Asian, and 1.32% Hispanic. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, with 20.4% of the population living below the poverty line.
Despite the high poverty rate, Pittsburgh has the lowest property crime rate and a lower-than-average violent crime rate among cities of similar size.
Pittsburgh is, according to the number of Croats living in it, the third largest Croat town, after Zagreb and Split. Until mid 1980s, Pittsburgh held second place.
 Local dialect
- See also: Pittsburgh English
The Pittsburgh English dialect, also known as "Pittsburghese" , derives from influences from the Scottish-Irish, German, Central European and Eastern European immigrants. Locals who speak in this dialect are sometimes referred to by the affectionate term "Yinzers" (from the local word for "y'all," yinz). The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects (ie, Erie, Baltimore), but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms (a result of the Eastern European influence). It also has so many local peculiarities that the New York Times described Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect." The lexicon itself contains notable cognates borrowing from Croatian and other Slavic and European languages. Examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.
The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade of steel. Since, Pittsburgh has adapted to the collapse of the region's steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such as robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. Education is also a major employer, from primary through magnet schools, specialized professional institutes and highly-ranked universities. In fact, Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a coporate headquarters city, with seven Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the sixth-most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation. In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.
 Major employers
- See also: List of major corporations in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh has grown its industry base in recent years to include technology, retail, finance and medicine. The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, followed closely by the University of Pittsburgh.
Fortune 500 Corporations:
Fortune 1000 Corporations:
Other major employers in the Pittsburgh area include the operations center for Alcoa, the North American headquarters for Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline and Lanxess. Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Nova Chemicals, FedEx, Ariba, Rand, US Airways and National City. Guru.com, 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, and GENCO are major non-public companies with headquarters in the region. Other major companies headquartered in Pittsburgh include Mylan Laboratories, General Nutrition Center (GNC), and CNX Gas (CXG), a subsidiary of Consol Energy.
 Government and politics
From the American Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. Since the Great Depression, Pittsburgh has been dominated by the Democratic Party.
Most Pittsburghers tend to be Democrats, primarily due to the historical influence of labor unions. Democratic candidates have been elected consecutively to either the mayor's office or city council since 1933, when David L. Lawrence led the party to power. A majority of Pittsburghers in the inner city are Democratic, while the suburbs tend to vote Republican.Template:Facts
The mayor, like the nine-member council, serves a four-year term. The seat of government is the Pittsburgh City-County Building. After the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor in September 2006, City Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn as the new mayor of Pittsburgh. At 26, he is both the youngest mayor in Pittsburgh's history, and in the history of any major American city. He will serve this position until a new mayoral election is held in November 2007. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The Pittsburgh Police Bureau is the law enforcement arm of the city while the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau is a major emergency response unit in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh EMS provides heavy rescue and river rescue services to the city.
Like many American cities, Pittsburgh has recently faced financial challenges and budget shortfalls. Although the cause of the city's budget shortfall is debated, many cite the success of the medical and academic sectors, since the nonprofits are tax-exempt. Despite the budget crisis, the city has continued to grow, as evidenced by the recent addition of the American Eagle Outfitters corporate headquarters, renovation of the former Lazarus-Macy's department store into high-end retail, office, and condo space, and multiple mixed-use towers under construction downtown. As further evidence of recovery from these fiscal problems, Pittsburgh had a $15 million surplus in 2005.
Pittsburgh is home to the following institutions of higher learning:
The most visible institutions of higher education in Pittsburgh are the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. The University of Pittsburgh, ranked in the top 25 public universities in US News & World Report, has its strengths in philosophy of science, Asian studies, business, philosophy, law, engineering, and medical care. Carnegie Mellon University is ranked in the top 25 of national universities in US News & World Report; the university's strengths include computer science, drama, business, public policy, engineering, design, art, and architecture.
Robert Morris University, based in the suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania, maintains a satellite center in downtown Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh Public School teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000–2001 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary offered to teachers with a BA ($34,300). Pittsburgh ranked fifth in the highest maximum salary offered to teachers with an MA ($66,380). Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Frick International Studies Academy, Rogers Middle School for the Creative and Performing Arts, Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts, and several schools for blind, deaf, or otherwise challenged children.
Private schools in Pittsburgh include Seton-La Salle Catholic High School, a merger of the former South Catholic and Elizabeth Ann Seton High Schools. Located in the South Hills, Seton-La Salle is the highest enrolled co-educational high school in the Diocese of Pittsburgh.
Central Catholic High School, which is run by the Christian Brothers of St. John the Baptist De La Salle. Oakland Catholic High School, an all-girls high school, is located less than two blocks away from Central Catholic High School. Both high schools are located in Oakland. The Shadyside neighborhood includes Winchester Thurston School and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy, whose main campuses are located in Fox Chapel, has a junior high school in the neighborhood of Point Breeze.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, wealthy businessmen and nonprofit organizations donated millions of dollars to create educational and cultural institutions. As a result, Pittsburgh is rich in art and culture.
Among the professional music venues, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra performs in Heinz Hall, and the Pittsburgh Opera performs in the Benedum Center. Both The Benedum Center and Heinz Hall provide venues for other groups, such as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues and bluegrass music. Pittsburgh also has a large indie and punk rock scene. Additionally the National Negro Opera Company was founded in Pittsburgh, and was the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera.
Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the internationally famous Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.
Museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art and the Frick Art & Historical Center. Installation art is featured outdoors at ArtGardens of Pittsburgh. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has extensive dinosaur collections and an Ancient Egypt wing. The Carnegie Science Center is technology oriented. The Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum are located in the Strip District. The unusual and eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown.
In theater, the Pittsburgh Playhouse of Point Park University has four resident companies of professional actors. Other companies include Attack Theatre, City Theatre, Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Pittsburgh Musical Theater, Pittsburgh Public Theater, and Quantum Theater. The city's longest-running theatre show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 17 years.
Pittsburgh has long been a center of film culture as well. Pittsburgh Filmmakers, one of the oldest and largest media arts centers in the United States, runs a filmmaking school and three art film theaters. The Three Rivers Film Festival brings a venue of independent, documentary and international films each November. Pittsburgh is also a popular location for films, including Flashdance, The Silence of the Lambs, Lorenzo's Oil, Wonder Boys, and Night of the Living Dead. Rawson Thurber's The Mysteries of Pittsburgh, and Smart People starring Sarah Jessica Parker have recently finished filming in the city.
- See also: List of films and television shows shot in Pittsburgh
Many notable individuals were born in or very near Pittsburgh. A few of the most recognizable contemporary figures are Andy Warhol, August Wilson, Charles Bronson, Jeff Goldblum and Michael Keaton.
- See also: List of people from Pittsburgh
The city has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System.
Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities. Cost of living, crime, cultural opportunities and other factors are considered in these rankings for livability.
Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other cities in the northeastern U.S. The average price for a 3- to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh is $162,000, which is well below the national average of $264,540, as of October 2004, according to the Federal Housing Finance Board.
After placing No. 4 and No. 1 in the first two editions of "Places Rated Almanac," Pittsburgh went on to finish third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997 and 12th in 2000. While that gives the impression of a moderate decline, primary author David Savageau noted Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition. In the 2004, 820-page book by Bert Sperling and Peter Sander, "Cities Ranked and Rated," Pittsburgh came in at #28. In the 2007 edition, Pittsburgh was rated as the No. 1 livable city.
In 2005, The Economist ranked Pittsburgh and Cleveland the top most livable cities in the United States, and tied the cities for 26th world-wide.
In 2007, the 25th anniversary edition of "Places Rated Almanac" rated Pittsburgh the most livable city in America, over cities like San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington DC.
On another note in 2007, the American Lung Association ranked the Pittsburgh area as the nation's second most polluted metropolitan area.
Pittsburgh's dedication to sports has a long history. Both its professional and collegiate teams have championship records. Three separate colleges have sent their football teams to major bowl games. The Pitt Panthers have won multiple national titles in both football and men's basketball. As home to two of the most successful teams in the former Negro League, the Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays, as well as the first Major League Baseball team to field an all-black lineup, the 1971 Pittsburgh Pirates, "no city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."
The Pittsburgh region also has developed several NFL quarterbacks, giving Western Pennsylvania the nickname, "Cradle of Quarterbacks." Dan Marino, Joe Montana, Joe Namath, Jim Kelly, Marc Bulger, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler, Johnny Unitas, current Tampa Bay Buccaneers quarterback, Bruce Gradkowski, and current Pittsburgh Steelers backup quarterback Charlie Batch are from the area. Several famous running backs, including Tony Dorsett, Curtis Martin, Kevan Barlow, Mercury Morris, Larry Brown and Ernie Davis are also from Pittsburgh. Also Miami Dolphins defensive end Jason Taylor is also from Pittsburgh. Two notable NHL players from the Pittsburgh area include Ryan Malone of the Penguins and R.J. Umberger of the Flyers. There is also a long list of baseball stars such as Ken Griffey, Jr., Ken Griffey, Sr., Stan Musial, and Honus Wagner, as well as numerous Olympic gold medal winners such as wrestler Kurt Angle and John Woodruff. Pittsburgh is also the home to former professional golfer Arnold Palmer. Pittsburgh also claims many major league coaching legends as its own including Marvin Lewis, Mike Ditka, Marty Schottenheimer, Mike McCarthy, Bill Cowher, Barry Alvarez, Terry Francona, Ken Macha and Art Howe. For these reasons, Pittsburgh has been called the "City of Champions." Kurt Angle a wrestler who won an Olympic Gold medal is also from Pittsburgh.
- See also: List of people from Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh is the only city that all major sports teams (Steelers, Penguins, and Pirates) share the same two colors, black and gold.
||National Football League; AFC North
||Super Bowl Champions: 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2006
||National Hockey League; Eastern Atlantic
||Stanley Cup Champions: 1990–91, 1991–92
||Major League Baseball; NL Central
||National League Champions (pre-World Series): 1901, 1902 - World Series Champions: 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979
||Continental Basketball Association; American Division
||Mellon Arena |
Petersen Events Center
||USL Second Division
||CONSOL Energy Park
||National Women's Football Association; Northern Conference
||George K. Cupples Stadium
||American Indoor Football League; North Division
||Rostraver Ice Garden
||beginning play in 2007
||Mid Atlantic Rugby Football Union Division 1; Potomac Rugby Union
||USA Rugby Division 1 Sweet-16 1999; MARFU Division 1 Champions 2003; USA Rugby Division 1 Elite-8 2004; MARFU Division 1 Runners Up: 2006
The main highway connecting Pittsburgh to the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76) on the east is I-376, locally known as the "Parkway East," while I-279 (called either the "Parkway North" or the "Parkway West," depending on its location relative to Downtown) connects the city with points north and west. I-76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike), I-79, and I-70, roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway". Navigation around Pittsburgh can also be accomplished via the Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System.
Pittsburgh is a city of bridges—446 in total. Pittsburgh has more bridges than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title of "City of Bridges". Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The southern "entrance" to Downtown is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. A bridge also carries the Port Authority's 42-S/47-L/52 subway lines across the Monongahela River. All told, over 2,000 bridges dot the landscape of Allegheny County.
The city is served by the highly-ranked  Pittsburgh International Airport Template:Airport codes about 10 miles to the west in Findlay Township. The airport also promotes the region as a focus city for U.S. Airways and has since the companies inception in the 1940s. Artdeco style Allegheny County Airport (AGC) handles 139,000 general aviation flights a year, and is located south-southeast of the city in West Mifflin.
Port Authority of Allegheny County, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit," is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area's 20th largest metro area it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation.
Port Authority runs a network of inter- and intracity bus routes, two funiculars (more commonly known as "inclines") on Mount Washington (used primarily by tourists rather than a means of commuting), a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems .
The city has Amtrak intercity rail service at Penn Station, as well as various freight railroads. Current railroads include Norfolk Southern, CSX and Amtrak.
The city is served by the 412 and 878 area codes since 2001, while most outlaying suburbs are served by both the 724 and 878 area codes. The city is served by Verizon as the dominant local carrier.
 Sites of interest
Pittsburgh houses the country's National Aviary. The Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens features a Victorian-style greenhouse. The Botanic Garden of Western Pennsylvania and Rodef Shalom Biblical Botanical Garden are also located in the area.
Other sites of interest include:
 Sister cities
Pittsburgh has 17 sister cities:
Pittsburgh also has a special relationship with the Israeli city of Karmiel and neighboring region of Misgav, as a part of the Partnership 2000 program. The United Jewish Federation of Pittsburgh has granted $600,000 to Karmiel and Misgav, and donated a Torah scroll to Karmiel in a ceremony on June 19, 2001.
 See also
- ↑ 
- ↑ 2002 Financial Statement Retrieved on January 30, 2007.
- ↑ Rand Data
- ↑ Pittsburgh rated 'most livable' once again
- ↑ Pittsburgh Chronology
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Lorant, Stefan (1999). Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City, 5th edition, Esselmont Books, LLC..
- ↑ Fort Pitt Museum
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article on Pittsburgh
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh (1921). Pittsburgh First, the Official Organ of The Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh.
- ↑ Ballou's Pictorial, issue of 21 February 1857
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 "How to Spell Pittsburgh." Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Retrieved on September 22, 2006.
- ↑ http://www.epodunk.com/top10/misspelled/index.html
- ↑ "The Steps of Pittsburgh: Portrait of a City" by Bob Regan, photos by Tim Fabian, published by The Local History Company, Pittsburgh, ISBN 0-9711835-6-2
- ↑ Data and Demographics - Character of Life/Public Safety (December 7, 2005). Pittsburgh Regional Alliance. Last visited June 11, 2006.
- ↑ . Last visited April 21, 2007.
- ↑ Pittsburgh Speech and Society - Overview. Last visited May 25, 2006.
- ↑ "Fortune 500: Cities with Five or More Fortune 500 Headquarters". Fortune. April 2007. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2007/cities/.</li>
- ↑ "2006 MAYOR'S CHALLENGE: Where Are the Best Metros for Future Business Locations?". Expansion Magazine. August 7, 2006. http://www.expansionmanagement.com/smo/newsviewer/default.asp?cmd=articledetail&articleid=17713&st=3.</li>
- ↑ Dan Majors (April 26, 2007). "Pittsburgh rated 'most livable' once again". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://post-gazette.com/pg/07116/781162-53.stm.</li>
- ↑ Schwartz, Naoki. "L.A. tops list of nation's most polluted". Associated Press via Yahoo. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070501/ap_on_sc/polluted_cities. Retrieved 2007-05-07.</li>
- ↑ John Perrotto (August 14, 2006). "Baseball Plog". Beaver County Times. http://www.timesonline.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=17047895&BRD=2305&PAG=461&dept_id=478568&rfi=6.</li>
- ↑ Mike White (August 25, 2005). "Tradition of Western Pennsylvania quarterbacks continues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/05238/558775.stm.</li>
- ↑ Pitt Chronicle: "Venice, Schmenice"</li>
- ↑ Bruce S. Cridlebaugh's website: Bridges and Tunnels of Allegheny County and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania</li>
- ↑ http://www.visitpittsburgh.com/static/index.cfm?contentID=141</li>
- ↑ Sister Cities designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI).</li>
- ↑ "Special Gift Strengthens Pittsburgh/Israel Connection." Partnership 2000 (July 2001). Retrieved on June 7, 2006.</li></ol>
 External links