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Communist Party of Kampuchea
The Communist Party of Kampuchea controlled Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1975 until 1979. The party had been called the Workers' Party of Kampuchea until it was renamed as the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) in 1971.
The organization is also known as the Khmer Rouge, a demeaning name chosen by the Western media, and is considered responsible for the deaths of thousands of civilians by starvation; possibly thousands by execution, and allegedly the torture of thousands as well. Much evidence (photographs of prisoners, human remains) exists of this. Estimates of the total numbers of dead range greatly, from 850,000 to 2.5 million. Yale University's Cambodian Genocide Program (CGP), which receives funding from the U.S. State Department, estimates 1.7 million.
- 1 Founding conference
- 2 The beginning of armed struggle
- 3 The Liberation of Phnom Penh
- 4 Democratic Kampuchea and elections
- 5 Problems with Vietnam
- 6 The first Westerner's experience with the regime, November 1978
- 7 Vietnam invades Cambodia
- 8 The party disintegrates
- 9 Documentation on Wikipedia
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Citations
The Workers' Party of Kampuchea was founded September 30, 1960 in a room of the Phnom Penh train station. Tou Samouth was elected party secretary. Students who had recently returned from France, and who were the next generation of Cambodian communists, were given prominent positions in the Politburo and central committee. Some issues of concern were to what extent this party would be independent of the Vietnam Workers' Party, as well as how the ramifications of international changes which occurred after the 1956 Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union would affect them. The founding meeting has been a point of contention because Vietnam sympathizers see the CPK as having roots in the Khmer People's Revolutionary Party, while supporters of Cambodian self-reliance see the party as a new creation.
In July of 1962 Tou Samouth disappeared, possibly arrested by the Cambodian government. In February 1963 the Workers' Party of Kampuchea (WPK) had a convention and elected Pol Pot as party secretary. In the following months, he and other central committee members left for the countryside to establish base areas. Pol Pot made secret visits to Hanoi and Peking.
In January 1967 a spontaneous peasant revolt in the province of Batdambang broke out in response to a government confiscation of land. Despite being spontaneous, it was blamed on the CPK. In October 1967, Khieu Samphan and other prominent communists left for the base areas.
The beginning of armed struggle
In January 1968 the CPK formed the Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea and made a decision to launch an armed struggle. In 1968 there were uprisings in more than half of Cambodia's provinces.
On March 18, 1970 a coup d'etat overthrew the government of King Norodom Sihanouk while he was in Beijing, replacing him with General Lon Nol. Lon Nol was seen as more apt to take orders from Washington DC than Sihanouk was. In April 1970, the United States invaded eastern Cambodia in order to attack Vietnamese bases there. On May 05 1970, Sihanouk formed the Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea which would be run by the National United Front of Kampuchea. Among the appointed ministers were Khieu Samphan and Hou Yuon, both of whom had joined Sihanouk's Samphan party in the late 1950's, but who also had connections with the CPK. The CPK joined the National United Front of Kampuchea.
The Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea's Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces fought with Lon Nol's Khmer National Armed Forces. In northeastern Cambodia, the Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces (CPNLAF) were helped by Vietnamese communists in this fight, the south and southwest of Cambodia, the CPNLAF fought the Khmer National Armed Forces (KNAF) by itself.
In 1971, the party changed its name from the Workers' Party of Kampuchea to the Communist Party of Kampuchea.
In January 1973, the US agreed to a ceasefire with the Vietnamese communists. The Vietnamese had wanted the CPNLAF to make concessions to the US and sign a ceasefire agreement as well, but the Cambodians refused. Thus in 1973, the United States, no longer dealing with fighting in Vietnam, began a massive aerial bombardment of areas of Cambodia that the CPNLAF had control of, killing hundreds of thousands of people. CPK members, especially those who had not gone to Hanoi in 1954, and had not been fighting in northeast Cambodia alongside the Vietnamese, began to distrust the Vietnam communists even more then they had before.
The Liberation of Phnom Penh
The US aerial bombardment of Cambodia, along with the civil war had caused many peasants to flee the countryside and head for the cities. This led to a situation where crops were not being grown, while people in the city, including the massive influx of refugees had to be fed. Compounding this, international food aid was cut off as soon the CPNLAF entered Phnom Penh. Many Cambodians had not been eating sufficiently prior to liberation, and Phnom Penh only had several days of food store to feed people. There were also fears the US might begin bombing Phnom Penh. The Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea began sending some peasants back to the country so as to grow food.
On April 30, 1975, Saigon was liberated by the Vietnamese. In the weeks that followed, Cambodian and Vietnamese troops were engaging in minor skirmishes due to border disputes, especially islands off the coast of Indochina.
Democratic Kampuchea and elections
On January 05, 1976 a new constitution was put in place and the Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea became Democratic Kampuchea. On March 20, 1976, Democratic Kampuchea held national elections to the People's Representative Assembly. In April 1976 Sihanouk and his cabinet resigned and was replaced with a new cabinet, with Khieu Samphan as head of state.
Problems with Vietnam
The Vietnam question loomed large within the CPK. Many CPK members, especially who had been in Hanoi in the 1950s and/or who had fought in northeast Cambodia alongside the Vietnamese were sympathetic to Vietnam. Another faction of the CPK was more wary of Vietnam's influence over Cambodia. This led to a growing rift in the CPK, between the pro-Vietnamese faction, mostly located in the east, and the Vietnamese-wary faction, mostly located elsewhere. It also led to tensions with Vietnam.
In 1977, Cambodians began having minor skirmishes along the border of Vietnam with the Vietnamese which grew in scope. In early 1978 the eastern zone pro-Vietnamese CPK faction began fighting with the Vietnamese against the anti-Vietnamese CPK faction.
The first Westerner's experience with the regime, November 1978
Prominent New York venture capitalist and private equity investor Daniel Burstein who, as a young communist radical with the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) and while working for The Call in the mid-1970s, was the first Westerner allowed to visit the Khmer Rouge-ruled Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia), hosted by its new leaders. He returned to pen a New York Times article claiming that widespread massacres of the populace by the Pol Pot regime were unfounded and largely a propaganda campaign by the US Central Intelligence Agency.
- "Everyone knows about the war waged by the United States in Cambodia from 1970 to 1975. But very few people know about or understand the war that it is waging today against that country, which now calls itself Democratic Kampuchea. The was is being fought on many fronts. But it is mainly a propaganda war, a consciously organized, well-financed campaign to spread lies and misinformation about Kampuchea since the victory of its revolution in 1975.
- "I was the first American to visit Kampuchea since April 17, 1975. What I saw has little in common with the stories told by so many journalists and other 'authorities' who have never been there...."
- "The most slanderous of all charges leveled against Kampuchea is that of 'mass genocide,' with figures often cited running into the millions of people. I believe this is a lie, which certain opinion-makers in this country believe can be turned into a 'fact' by repeating it often enough." - Daniel Burstein, "On Cambodia: But, Yet," New York Times, November 21, 1978, Page A21
Vietnam invades Cambodia
On December 02, 1978, the Kampuchea United Front for National Salvation was formed. It was a group of Cambodian communists (and non-communists) dedicating to overthrow the government in Cambodia. It was facilitated and backed by Vietnam. On December 25, 1978, Vietnam and the Kampuchea United Front for National Salvation (KUFNS) invaded Cambodia. On January 07, 1979, Vietnamese and KUFNS troops captured Phnom Penh. The CPK retreated into the countryside. The Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Council was set up as the new government, and on January 10, 1979 the People's Republic of Kampuchea was declared.
The CPK still controlled a part of Cambodia along the border with Thailand. In September 1979, and afterward, the United States fought to keep the Cambodia seat at the UN controlled by the CPK instead of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Council. The US also sent aid to the CPK.
The party disintegrates
The CPK continued fighting the government for years. In 1991 a treaty was signed but it fell apart. By the mid 1990s the CPK was plagued by internal problems. On March 06, 1999, the last leader of the CPK who remained alive and not in prison, Ta Mok, was captured, and the CPK ceased to exist.
Documentation on Wikipedia
Relying in no smallpart on the fact that Pol Pot's government was modelled on communism, a successful movement to (that) confuse(s) and conflate(s) communism as a political system with the actions of those who styled themselves communist has entrenched itself on Wikipedia. (See Wikipedia:Communist genocide). This fails the Wikipedia:WP:NPOV test normally applied to articles because the title alone, never mind its subject, is in danger of saying that the Communist system of government is inherently genocidal, or that it leads to mass killings. Even presenting the views of scholars who believe in this idea is against the principle of scientific and scholarly consensus (Wikipedia:WP:Notability Wikipedia:WP:FRINGE), as it is the view of a tiny minority of historians. And worse, such evidence is itself the minority content in the article; other content is lists of the instances of mass deaths, and the reader is back to dodging the concept of a link between communism and genocide again.
- After the Cataclysm: Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman (ISBN 0896081001)
- Cambodia 1975-1982 by Michael Vickery (ISBN 9747100819)
- Burstein, Daniel: "On Cambodia: But, Yet," New York Times, November 21, 1978
- Caveat: now entering a site with a Point Of View that includes, "The extremism of the Khmer Rouge was not merely rooted in evil."-(Introduction: The Unique Revolution) Apparently there may be worse epithets, and this site is determined to find all of them. However, as this is the only cite available (odd, that)... Averaging Wrong Answers: Noam Chomsky and the Cambodia Controversy by Bruce Sharp on Mekong