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Arthur Koestler (1905 September 5 (Budapest, Hungary) â€” 1983) was a British novelist, journalist, and critic, best known for Darkness at Noon (1940), which reflects his break with the Communist Party.
During the Spanish Revolution / Civil War he was captured by Franco forces, and under a sentence of death in a Seville jail. Here he experienced a mystical liberation depicted in Spanish Testament (1937). Narrowly escaping execution, in 1940 he was interned under the Vichy government. After his release he moved to England, and wrote his first book in English, The Scum of the Earth (1941), an autobiography.