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12th July Baghdad airstrike

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See also WikiLeaks and WikiLeaks leaks

The 12th July, 2007 Baghdad airstrikes were a series of three air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two United States Army AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, in the district of New Baghdad in Baghdad, during the Iraq War.(Map View) At least 18 people were killed in total.[1] In the first two airstrikes: about 12 people killed, including 2 civilian reporters; 2 children wounded.[2] In the third airstrike: at least 7 people killed.[3]

The first strike by "Crazyhorse 18" directed 30 mm caliber cannon fire at a group of around ten men alleged to be Iraq insurgents by the US Army. Two of the victims turned out to be Reuters news staff; Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen, whose cameras may have been mistaken for weapons. Nine men were killed, including Noor-Eldeen. Chmagh was initially wounded by Crazyhorse 18.

The second airstrike using 30 mm fire was directed at a van and men attempting to evacuate Chmagh and possibly other survivors. Two children inside the van were wounded, and three more men were killed, including Chmagh.

In the third airstrike, the "Bush" helicopter team deployed three AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, which destroyed a building, after having seen men, some armed and some unarmed, enter the building. An undisclosed number of civilians were killed in this building, including women and children living there and a person walking on the sidewalk.

The attacks received worldwide coverage following the release of 39 minutes of classified cockpit video footage in 2010. Reuters had unsuccessfully requested the footage under the Freedom of Information Act in 2007. The footage was acquired from an undisclosed source in 2009 by the Internet leak website WikiLeaks, which released a shorter, edited version on April 5, 2010, under the name Collateral Murder along with the full version. Recorded from the gunsight Target Acquisition and Designation System of one of the attacking helicopters, the video shows the three incidents and the radio chatter between the aircrews and ground units involved. An anonymous US military official confirmed the authenticity of the footage.[4]


[edit] Context

See also: 2007 in Iraq, Iraq War troop surge of 2007, and List of coalition military operations of the Iraq War#2007

According to Tom Cohen, CNN, "the soldiers of Bravo Company 2-16 Infantry had been under fire all morning from rocket-propelled grenades and small arms on the first day of Operation Ilaaj in Baghdad".[5] Al Jazeera stated that the Army had received "reports of small arms fire" but as they were unable to positively identify the gunmen they proceeded to dispatch Apache helicopters to the area.[6]

The Air Weapons Team (AWT) of two Apache AH-64s (part of the 1st Cavalry Division) had been requested by the Army's 2–16 Infantry Battalion, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Kauzlarich, before July 12 to support Operation Ilaaj. Tasked to conduct escort, armed reconnaissance patrols, counter-IED and counter-mortar operations, the two helicopters left Camp Taji at 9.24am. They arrived on station in New Baghdad at 9.53am, where, according to the official report, sporadic attacks on coalition forces continued.[7]

[edit] Incidents


[edit] Attack on personnel

On the morning of July 12, 2007, the crews of two[8] United States Army AH-64 Apache helicopters observed a gathering of men near an open air section of Baghdad. The crews estimated that group was made up of twenty men.[9] This group included two members of staff from the Reuters news service, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh.[5][10][11][12][13] The helicopter crews mistook the cameras carried by Chmagh and Noor-eldeen for weapons.[5][14] A crew member reported seeing "five to six individuals with AK-47s" and, believing that the entire group were Iraqi insurgents, requested authorization to engage.[5] After approval was granted one pilot, while maneuvering over his comrades in a humvee below, mistook the shadow cast on the ground by a zoom lens on the camera for an R.P.G.[9] The men were obscured behind a building.[5] Once they became visible again, both helicopters strafed a group of ten men with 30 mm rounds.[4][5][15] Several men were killed, including Noor-Eldeen, and others wounded, including Chmagh.[5][8][11]

[edit] Commentary

WikiLeaks said in the preface to one of their videos of the incident that "some of the men appear to have been armed [although] the behavior of nearly everyone was relaxed" in the introductory text of the shorter video.[16] Fox News said that of the attack “at least one man in that group was carrying a rocket-propelled grenade launcher, a clearly visible weapon that runs nearly two-thirds the length of his body”.[14] The Guardian stated “It is unclear if some of the men are armed but Noor-Eldeen can be seen with a camera”.[11] Julian Assange said “permission to engage was given before the word ‘RPG’ was ever used”.[16] Glenn Greenwald of Salon.com said that “the vast majority of the men were clearly unarmed”.[17]The Australian newspaper said the group was displaying “no obvious hostile action”.[18] The German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung said “Nothing in the images suggests the victims were terrorists or insurgents”.[19]

[edit] Attack on a van

The wounded Chmagh was crawling on the ground,[11][20] when a van returned to the scene.[5][11][20] Unarmed[11] men attempted to get him to the van.[5][11][20] The watching helicopter crews requested permission to engage, stating "…looks like [the men] possibly uh picking up bodies and weapons" from the scene,[21] and upon receiving permission opened fire on the van and its occupants.[5][11][20] Two children sitting in the front seat were wounded in the attack but survived.[5][11][20] Chmagh was killed[5][11][20] along with the father of the children.[22]

[edit] Commentary

Greenwald called this attack a "plainly unjustified killing of a group of unarmed men carrying away an unarmed, seriously wounded man to safety".[17] Julian Assange stated that initial attempts to evacuate the wounded children to a nearby US military hospital were blocked by US military command.[23] The legal review carried out by the US Army states that the two children were evacuated to the 28th Combat Support Hospital via Forward Operating Base Loyalty, then transferred to an Iraqi medical facility the next day.[8]

In an article published in The Independent on April 8, 2010, human rights activist Joan Smith asserts that the engagements were as a game to the helicopter crew. She writes that the co-pilot urged a dying, unarmed journalist to pick up a weapon as he tried to crawl to safety; and claims that the footage shows "...the Apache crew opening fire on civilians...".[24] When the crew were informed that a child had been injured by their attack, one commented "Well, it's their fault for bringing kids into a battle".[24] Smith describes this reaction as inhuman. She draws parallels with soldiers who suffered post-traumatic stress disorder in earlier wars. She continues "...the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are inflicting huge psychological damage on combatants".[24] In refusing to recognise this, the US military fails both its own soldiers and their "victims".[24] Command structures need to be in place to identify "combatants with serious psychological problems",[24] she concludes.

On Democracy Now!, Josh Stieber, a conscientious objector who was at the time assigned to Bravo Company 2–16, said that although it's natural to "judge or criticize the soldiers", in fact "this is how [they] were trained to act". He said that the debate should be re-framed, that it is more appropriate to ask "questions of the larger system" that teaches "doing these things is in the best interests of my own country".[25] "If you want to keep things like this from happening, stop screaming at soldiers...and instead spend your energy exposing the training that soldiers are put through and demand...leaders reexamine the system that creates the callousness displayed in this video...".[26]

On April 29, 2010, Lateline interviewed Ethan McCord, the U.S. soldier who is seen in the leaked video carrying an injured child. He said:

"From being in the perspective of the Apache helicopter crew, I can see where a group of men gathering, when there’s a firefight just a few blocks away, which I was involved in, and they’re carrying weapons, one of which is an RPG.... Their overall mission that day was to protect us, to provide support for us, so I can see where the initial attack on the group of men was warranted. However, personally I don’t feel that the attack on the van was warranted. I think that the people could have been deterred from doing what they were doing in the van by simply firing a few warning shots versus completely obliterating the van and its occupants."[27][28]
[edit] WikiLeaks' rationale for their title of Collateral Murder

In an Al Jazeera English interview on April 19, 2010, WikiLeaks' Julian Assange explained (while watching the leaked video) why WikiLeaks titled the video "Collateral Murder":

"And you can see that they also deliberately target Saaed, a wounded man there on the ground, despite their earlier belief that they didn’t have the rules of engagement - that the rules of engagement did not permit them to kill Saaed when he was wounded. When he is rescued, suddenly that belief changed. You can see in this particular image he is lying on the ground and the people in the van [(who came to rescue him)] have been separated, but they still deliberately target him. This is why we called it Collateral Murder. In the first example [(attack on personnel)] maybe it’s collateral incompetence when they strafe the initial gathering, [that was] recklessness bordering on murder, but you couldn’t say for sure that was murder. But this particular event - this is clearly murder."[29]

[edit] Attack on a building

File:July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike unedited part2.ogv

There is a period of 20 minutes not included on the leaked tape.[30] According to the internal legal review, the helicopters engaged a group of armed insurgents, and that some were seen entering a nearby building.[8]

As the tape resumes, two men holding objects are seen walking. They split up and the footage focuses on one who appears to be armed.[3] He walks into a building, after which the helicopter crew reports that "there's at least six individuals in that building with weapons". They request permission to fire a missile at the building, describing it at first as "abandoned" and then as "under construction". The ground controller responds, "If you've PIDed the individuals in the building with weapons, go ahead and engage the building". The gunner then takes a few moments to ready a Hellfire missile, during which two more unarmed men are seen entering the building.[3] One member notices this saying, "Got more individuals in there". As the gunner prepares to fire the first missile, a man is seen walking along the street in front of the building. The missile is fired and hits the building in a large explosion through which the man can no longer be seen. Afterwards, Crazy Horse 1/8 asks for permission to fire another Hellfire a few times. Once granted, they take a few moments to ready the missile again, during which several people are seen walking around the debris from the first missile.[31] The footage is then directed in the opposite direction of the building, as the gunner says, "There it goes! Look at that bitch go! Patoosh!". Shortly after, the crew fires a third missile into the building, covering the area with smoke and dust.[3]

[edit] Commentary

The owner of the building says that three families had been living in the building and seven residents had died, including his wife and daughter.[3] On April 7, 2010, The New Yorker published a report which concentrates on the Hellfire missile attacks, describing them as "inherently more indiscriminate"[3] than the earlier engagements. The report states that the helicopter crew did not know how many people were in the building when they destroyed it with missiles, and that "there is evidence that unarmed people have both entered and are nearby".[3] It concludes that an investigating officer would want to know how the armed men were identified as combatants from the earlier engagement; would question the nature of the collateral-damage estimate carried out by the crew before the missiles were launched; and would wish to determine whether a missile attack was a proportionate response to the threat.

[edit] 2007–2009 coverage

On the day of the attack the US military reported that the two journalists were killed along with "nine insurgents", and that the helicopter engagement was related to a US troop raid force that had been attacked by small-arms fire and RPGs.[32] US forces spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Scott Bleichwehl later stated: "There is no question that coalition forces were clearly engaged in combat operations against a hostile force".[32]

Washington Post reported it was unclear whether the journalists were killed by U.S. fire or by shooting from the targeted Iraqis. Capt. James Hall stated they couldn't drive in Bradleys in fear of running over bodies. Maj. Brent Cummings claimed they took great pains to prevent the loss of innocent civilian lives.[33]

Reuters reported that it could locate no witnesses who had seen gunmen in the immediate area. Reuters also stated that local police described the attack as "random American bombardment".[34] Reuters subsequently asked the US military to probe the deaths. They asked for an explanation of the confiscation of the journalists' two cameras, access to the onboard footage and voice communications from the helicopters involved, and access to the reports of the units involved in the incident, particularly logs of weapons taken from the scene.[34]

The Pentagon blocked an attempt by Reuters to obtain the video footage of the incident through the Freedom of Information Act.[11]

An internal legal review by staff at Forward Operating Base Loyalty in Iraq during July 2007 stated that the helicopters had attacked a number of armed insurgents within the rules of engagement, and that in an apparent case of collateral damage two reporters working for Reuters had also been killed. The review would not be released in full until 2010, after the video of the incident had been released by WikiLeaks.[35]

Washington Post reporter David Finkel, who at the time was embedded with Bravo Company 2–16 Infantry, later reported the day in his book, The Good Soldiers.[36]

[edit] 2010 coverage

[edit] Leaked video footage

Template:Wikinews Early in 2010, the internet leak site WikiLeaks made a public request for assistance in decrypting a video it described as "US bomb strikes on civilians", specifically requesting access to supercomputer time.[37] The site stated on its Twitter account on January 8, 2010, that it had a copy of video footage of the incidents,[38] and announced that it would release it by March 21.[39] The footage was released during an April 5 press conference at the National Press Club, and subsequently under a designated website titled "Collateral Murder". WikiLeaks stated that the footage shows the "murder of Iraqi civilians and two Reuters journalists".[40][41] WikiLeaks identified the leak's source as "a number of military whistleblowers".[23] Speaking to Reuters on condition of anonymity, a U.S. Defense official confirmed the authenticity of the leaked audio and video.[4] The military reported that it could not find its copy of the video.[42]

WikiLeaks released a 39-minute version, which shows all three incidents, and a 17 minute version, which shows only the first two attacks. Highlighted in the 17 minute version of the video are Noor-Eldeen with a camera and Chmagh talking on his mobile phone.[11] Both videos depict the attack on the van, van driver, and two other men, and the aftermath when the two seriously injured children were evacuated by US ground forces who arrived on the scene.[23] The longer video shows the third attack, in which Hellfire missiles were fired into a building.[3]

[edit] Commentary

Fox News criticized WikiLeaks' edit of the video, stating "the problem, according to many who have viewed the video, is that WikiLeaks appears to have done selective editing". They point out that WikiLeaks edited the video to slow it down and identify the Reuters staff and their camera equipment, but a few seconds later did not identify "that at least one man in that group was carrying a rocket-propelled grenade launcher, a clearly visible weapon that runs nearly two-thirds the length of his body".[14] Also, WikiLeaks "does not point out that at least one man was carrying an AK-47 assault rifle. He is seen swinging the weapon below his waist while standing next to the man holding the RPG". The Wikileaks edited video did not add arrows pointing to these men, nor did they label them, as was done with the men carrying cameras. WikiLeaks did, in fact, state "some of the men appear to have been armed [although] the behavior of nearly everyone was relaxed" in the introductory text of the shorter video.[16] In an interview with Fox News Assange acknowledged that "it's likely some of the individuals seen in the video were carrying weapons". He explained, "based upon visual evidence I suspect there probably were AKs and an RPG, but I'm not sure that means anything ... Nearly every Iraqi household has a rifle or an AK. Those guys could have just been protecting their area". Fox News later stated that "although it could be argued AK-47 rifles are common household items, RPGs are not". A draft version of the video WikiLeaks produced made reference to the AK-47s and RPGs, but WikiLeaks said that ultimately they became unsure about the RPG, believing the long object could have been a camera tripod, so they decided not to point it out in the released version.[14]

US Defense Secretary Robert Gates criticised WikiLeaks for releasing the video without providing any context. "These people can put out anything they want, and they're never held accountable for it. There's no before and there's no after," Gates said.[43] The New Yorker praised its release, calling it "a striking artifact – an unmediated representation of the ambiguities and cruelties of modern warfare".[1] Julian Assange said "it’s ludicrous to allege that we have taken anything out of context in this video".[14]

Daniel Ellsberg, a former United States military analyst best known for leaking the Pentagon Papers to the media, said of the airstrike:

"It would be interesting to have someone speculate or tell us exactly what context would lead to justifying the killing that we see on the screen. As the killing goes on, you obviously would see the killing of men who are lying on the ground in an operation where ground troops are approaching and perfectly capable of taking those people captive, but meanwhile you’re murdering before the troops arrive. That’s a violation of the laws of war and of course what the mainstream media have omitted from their stories is this context".[44]

[edit] Subsequent mainstream media coverage

Publicity of the incident ballooned following the release of the footage. The event was covered by Al Jazeera English, RT[45] and Reuters,[4] and was also followed by organizations including The Washington Post,[46] the New York Times,[35] the Christian Science Monitor,[47] the BBC,[41] and CNN.[15]

Assange stated that some of the press had not reported on the third airstrike, in which three Hellfire missiles were fired onto an apartment complex, which only appears in the longer unedited version of the two videos.[20]

In an interview on NPR on April 6th, the day after the Collateral Murder video release, David Finkel pointed out that the Reuters reporters were not embedded with anyone, but working independently. He also gave his view of the context of the killings:

... the Reuters guys walked into the hottest spot of a very hot morning. There had been running gun battles. There had been a lot of RPG, grenade fire and so on, and they were doing what journalists do. They heard about something, they came to it and they just wanted – from everything I've learned since, they were just there to get that side of the story.[48]

Finkel had reported the day in his book, The Good Soldiers,[36] including conversations which closely matched the subsequently leaked video footage. On the same day as the NPR interview, Finkel was asked how he had gotten a chance to see the unedited video and whether WikiLeaks had shown it to him. He responded, "I hadn't heard of WikiLeaks before yesterday. I based the account in my book on multiple sources, all unclassified".[49] WikiLeaks co-founder Julian Assange said that Finkel had seen the video and that at least one individual at the offices of the Washington Post had a copy of the video for at least a year, prior to its release by WikiLeaks.[44] The Washington Post has denied having any copy of the unedited video prior to WikiLeaks release of their edited version, and Finkel (who was on book leave from the Washington Post at the time) has said that he has never made any statement about his sources for the story, except that it was "sourced [...] from unclassified information and my presence in the area that day".[50]

[edit] Interviews with Ethan McCord

Ethan McCord, the soldier seen in the video carrying the injured boy, recalled in an interview on The Marc Steiner Show that on arrival at the scene, "The first thing I did was run up to the van...". After attending the girl's wounds and handing her to a medic, he was ordered to take position on roof but he returned to the van to find the boy moved his hand. "I grabbed him and ran to the Bradley myself". He claims he "got yelled at" for not "pulling security". "The first thing I thought of...was my children at home". He later sought help for psychological trauma, but was told that if he were to go to the mental health officer, "there would be repercussions".[51]

McCord further discussed his experience in the battle in an interview with the World Socialist Web Site, published on April 28th, 2010. In this interview, he reports the above "repercussions" could include being labeled as a "malingerer," or one who exaggerates incapacity to avoid work or duty. As malingering is a crime under U. S. military law, McCord infers that refusing to "quit being a pussy" or to "suck it up and be a soldier" could result in criminal prosecution.[52] McCord recounts the airstrike as an "everyday" military proceeding in Iraq.[53]

[edit] Arrest of Bradley Manning


Main article: Bradley Manning

In May 2010, a 22-year-old American Army intelligence analyst named Bradley Manning was arrested after telling Adrian Lamo he had leaked the airstrike video, along with a video of another airstrike and around 260 000 diplomatic cables, to WikiLeaks.[2][54] As of June 7, Manning had not yet been formally charged.[2][54] Manning said that the diplomatic documents expose "almost criminal political back dealings" and that they explain "how the first world exploits the third, in detail".[55][56] WikiLeaks said "allegations in Wired that we have been sent 260,000 classified US embassy cables are, as far as we can tell, incorrect".[56] WikiLeaks have said that they are unable as yet to confirm whether or not Manning was actually the source of the video, stating "we never collect personal information on our sources", but saying also that "if Brad Manning [is the] whistleblower then, without doubt, he's a national hero"[56] and "we have taken steps to arrange for his protection and legal defence".[2]

[edit] Legality of the attacks

In an April 5 article in The New Yorker, Raffi Khatchadourian addressed several issues involved in determining the legality of the attacks, including "proportionality", "positive identification" ("reasonable certainty" that the target has hostile intent), and "the treatment of casualties during an ongoing military operation".[57] Mark Taylor, an expert on international law and a director at the Fafo Institute for International Studies in Norway, has stated that there is "a case to be made that a war crime may have been commited [sic]".[58] An article in Gawker stated that Reuters reporter Luke Baker had written an article claiming that the airstrikes may have been war crimes, but the editor in chief of Reuters declined to run the story.[59]

[edit] Military legal review

On April 5, 2010, the same day as the release of the video footage by WikiLeaks, the United States Central Command, which oversees the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, released a collection of documents including two investigative reports.[7][35] Pentagon officials told the Reuters news agency that US military lawyers were reviewing the video and could reopen an investigation into the incident,[42] but said more recently that there are no plans to reopen the investigation.[60]

The report states that at least two members of the group which were first fired on were armed, that two RPG launchers and one AKM or AK-47 rifle could be seen in the helicopter video, and that these weapons were picked up by the follow-up U.S. ground troops. The report concludes that the Reuters employees were in the company of armed insurgents. It also states that "The cameras could easily be mistaken for slung AK-47 or AKM rifles, especially since neither cameraman is wearing anything that identifies him as media or press".[5] The report recommends encouraging journalists in Iraq to wear special vests to identify themselves, and to keep the U.S. military updated about their whereabouts. Reporters "furtive attempts to photograph the Coalition Ground Forces made them appear as hostile combatants"[61][62]

[edit] Incident according to the report

[edit] Attack on personnel and a van

According to the U.S. Army investigation report released by the United States Central Command, the engagement started at 10:20 Iraqi local time and ended at 10:41. A unit from Bravo Company 2–16 was within 100 meters of the individuals that were fired upon with 30mm AH-64 Apache cannons. The company was charged with clearing their sector from any small armed forces, and had been under fire from small arms and rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). The company was supported by two Apache helicopters from the 1st Cavalry Division's Aviation Brigade, callsigns "Crazyhorse 1/8" and "Crazyhorse 1/9". Two men were identified by Crazyhorse 1/8 as carrying an RPG launcher and an AKM or AK-47. When the cameraman on the ground aimed his camera in the direction of Bravo Company 2–16, a pilot remarked "He's getting ready to fire". An Apache maneuvered around a building to get a clear field of fire and shot all nine men, killing eight. A van then approached the area and attempted to load a wounded man. After getting permission to fire, the Apache crew fired on the van. When Bravo Company arrived at the scene, they found two RPGs and an AK-47 or AKM. They also found two Canon EOS digital cameras with telephoto lenses. Two children were found in the van, a four year old girl with gunshot wounds and an eight year old boy with multiple wounds, including brain damage arising from shrapnel damage to his right temporal lobe. Both children were evacuated to the 28th Combat Support Hospital via Forward Operating Base Loyalty, then transferred to an Iraqi medical facility the next day.[8]

While the Air Weapons Team was providing support at the first engagement area they were informed by ground troops that they were receiving small arms fire from the south/southwest. The crew for Crazyhorse 1/8 then located multiple individuals with weapons about 400 meters east of coalition forces and was given clearance to engage the targets. However, the co-pilot/gunner then observed a child and some other non-combatants in the vicinity of the individuals and decided to hold off on the engagement until the non-combatants were clear. After the non-combatants were clear Crazyhorse 1/8 engaged the targets. The crew for Crazyhorse 1/9 could not engage due to target obfuscation from buildings and dust.[8]

The team observed several individuals from this group, some possibly wounded, run into a large multistory building. The co-pilot/gunner for Crazyhorse 1/9 spotted three individuals near this building get into a red SUV and drive away to the west. For about 5 to 10 minutes the team diverted its attention to this vehicle. However, according to the co-pilot for Crazyhorse 1/8 they failed to positively identify the occupants as combatants and returned to the previous engagement area.[8]

[edit] Attack on building

The events between the attack on the van and the attack on the building (approximately 30 minutes) were not captured on the leaked video footage.[63] The military did not include the attack on the building in their report.[3]

[edit] Commentary

In an interview with Democracy Now!, WikiLeaks co-founder Julian Assange responded to the investigation report released by the Army, commenting that "the tone and language is all about trying to find an excuse for the activity... It’s very clear that that is the approach, to try and find any mechanism to excuse the behavior, and that is what ended up happening".[20] Assange also stated that the building attacked by missiles was not abandoned, and that WikiLeaks had evidence that "there were three families living in that apartment complex, many of whom were killed, including women".[20] An article in The New Yorker criticised the "informal" legal investigation of the US Army for omitting the fact that permission to engage was given before the helicopter crews reported seeing an RPG.[64]

[edit] References

[36] * * * [48] * * * [8] * * * [10] * * * [5] * * * [11] * * * [12] * * * [13] * * * [20] * * * [22] * * * [57] * * * [3] * * * [64] * * * [1] * * * [32] * * * [34] * * * [37] * * * [38] * * * [39] * * * [40] * * * [6] * * * [42] * * * [41] * * * [60] * * * [23] * * * [54] * * * [4] * * * [45] * * * [46] * * * [35] * * * [47] * * * [15] * * * [14] * * * [18] * * * [19] * * * [43] * * * [7]

[edit] External links

Template:Portal box Template:wikisourcehas Template:Commons category Template:Commons category Template:Wikinews2


[edit] Citations

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Khatchadourian, Raffi No Secrets. The New Yorker. URL accessed on 2010-07-10.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "US intelligence analyst arrested over security leaks". BBC News. 2010-06-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/asia_pacific/10254072.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-07.</li>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Khatchadourian, Raffi The Use of Force. The New Yorker. URL accessed on 2010-04-08.</li>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 "Leaked U.S. video shows deaths of Reuters' Iraqi staffers". Reuters. 2010-04-05. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6344FW20100406. Retrieved 2010-04-07.</li>
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Cohen, Tom (2010-04-07). "Leaked video reveals chaos of Baghdad attack". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/meast/04/06/iraq.journalists.killed. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "The two photojournalists were Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen. ... Chmagh surviving the initial shooting, but apparently he died when the gunship opened fire on people attempting to get him to a van that arrived, apparently to collect the wounded."</li>
  6. 6.0 6.1 Collateral Murder?. Al Jazeera English. URL accessed on 2010-04-22.</li>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Records released to the public, under the FOIA, that are or will likely become the subject of subsequent requests.. United States Central Command.</li>
  8. 9.0 9.1 http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/July_12,_2007_Baghdad_airstrike_transcript</li>
  9. 10.0 10.1 Cohen, Noam; Stelter, Brian (2010-04-06). "Video expands notoriety of WikiLeaks site". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2011540341_wikileaks07.html. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "left 12 people dead, including two Reuters news-agency employees ... (The Pentagon defended the killings and said no disciplinary action was taken at the time of the incident. ... Reuters had tried for 2 ½ years through the Freedom of Information Act to obtain the Iraq video, to no avail. ... WikiLeaks .. used the label "Collateral Murder""</li>
  10. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 McGreal, Chris (2010-04-05). "WikiLeaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/apr/05/wikileaks-us-army-iraq-attack. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "Among the dead were a 22-year-old Reuters photographer, Namir Noor-Eldeen, and his driver, Saeed Chmagh, 40."</li>
  11. 12.0 12.1 Sengupta, Kim (2010-04-07). "The pictures that prove US helicopter gunships opened fire on Iraqi civilians". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-pictures-that-prove-us-helicopter-gunships-opened-fire-on-iraqi-civilians-1937595.html. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "among those killed were 22-year-old Namir Noor-Eldeen, a photographer carrying a camera, and his driver, Saeed Chmagh, 40, carrying out a journalistic assignment. ... an investigation shortly after the incident concluded that US forces were unaware of the presence of the Reuters team and believed they were engaging armed insurgents."</li>
  12. 13.0 13.1 McElroy, Damien (2010-04-06). "Calls for inquiry into Apache attack on Iraqi civilians". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/7560561/Calls-for-inquiry-into-Apache-attack-on-Iraqi-civilians.html. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh, two cameramen for the Reuters news agency, were among 15 people killed in the attacks ... The Pentagon acknowledged the authenticity of the video but a spokesman insisted the video did not contradict the official finding that the helicopters' crew acted within the rules of engagement."</li>
  13. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Fishel, Justin (2010-04-07). "Military Raises Questions About Credibility of Leaked Iraq Shooting Video". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/04/07/military-raises-questions-credibility-leaked-iraq-shooting-video/. Retrieved 2010-04-07. "at least one man was carrying an AK-47 assault rifle. He is seen swinging the weapon below his waist while standing next to the man holding the RPG."</li>
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  52. Ibid.</li>
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