Zionism is a nationalistic ideology that calls for:
- the re-establishment of Israel as a Jewish state and homeland for the Jewish people
- the return of the Jewish diaspora to Israel
- the revival of Jewish culture (including the Hebrew language) as a nationality-based, rather than diaspora-based culture.
Early Zionism was closely affiliated with the socialist movement, as evidenced by the many kibbutzim, or communes, in early Israel. Zionism was an alternative to assimilation of the Jewish people into the cultures of their countries of residency was bolstered somewhat in the 19th and 20th centuries due to extensive violent and genocidal acts of anti-Semitism by the majority non-Jewish peoples in these countries, most notably the Holocaust. By the end of World War II and the repression of fascism in Europe, the fulfillment of the ideal for a Jewish homeland state was well on its way to fruition, culminating in an Israeli declaration of independence from the United Kingdom in 1948. Both before and after the war, Israel has been mired in various wars with its Arab residents and neighbors due to both its non-Muslim, non-Arab presence in the region, which has provoked Arab aggression, and the policies pursued in retaliation by the Israeli government.
Anti-Zionism, on the other hand, is opposition to the establishment or perpetuity of Israel as a Jewish state or homeland. It is frequently conflated with anti-Semitism, and expressions by avowed anti-Zionists tend to verge into the same ideologically-inclined dialogue that is used by avowed anti-Semites (thus, it goes without saying that Islamist groups within the nearest vicinities of Israel tend to combine the ethnic, religious and national reasons for their opposition to the existences of Judaism, the Jews and Israel). However, while anti-Semitism is both religious and ethnic in nature, anti-Zionism is primarily national-political in nature, and is touted most by self-avowed "patriots" who view Israelis, the Israeli government and Zionist groups outside of Israel as being a malign, sinister influence upon, say, American foreign policy; such opposition against Zionism tends to be populist in nature, railing against the government and corporations for waste and corruption, and pointing to the government's relationship with Israel as being a prime example of such malignancy.
 In Israel
Within Israel, Zionism takes on various shades of opinion on Israel's domestic and foreign policy. The most popular "hardline" Zionism are Religious Zionism and Revisionist Zionism.
- Religious Zionism, a relatively-recent religious adaption of Zionism, seeks to establish a religious Jewish presence in Judea and Samaria and favor establishing a halachic state (one ruled by Jewish law). Has support from many rabbis.
- Revisionist Zionism, most noted for its association with Ze'ev Jabotinsky, who envisioned both sides of the Jordan as the Jewish state, a state which "definitely has ebough space for a million Arabs and another million of their off-spring, for many millions of Jews- and for peace.". Ze'ev Jabotinsky was a classical liberal with the anarchistic philosophy that "In the future end of time... the paradise of the individual would be a wonderful kingdom of anarchy".
Both support the settlements in Judea and Samaria.
There have been attempts to reconcile Zionist visions with anarchist or anarchistic philosophies. Early Kibbutzim- extremely widespread communes throughout Israel were often anarchistic. Modern Anarchozionism is to be found on the Internet mostly. Prominent Anarchozionist theorists include Aaron Van Praag and the Bostonian Zionist Anarchist Youth Organization.