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Russian Civil War

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The Russian Civil War was an internal conflict in Russia from 1917 to 1922, which resulted in the collapse of the Russian Empire, and the establishment of the Soviet Union. The revolutionaries were communist Bolsheviks, known as "Reds", while the internationally-backed tsarists were known as "Whites". All of the 'Allies' of World War I fought against the fledgling country for years, 14 countries altogether. Allied intervention began as early as 1918, while WWI was still being fought, and Japan fought on unsuccessfully until 1925.[1][2]

Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war.[3] A number of them – Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland – were established as sovereign states. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union with the success of the Bolsheviks shortly afterwards.

Non-Russian forces[edit]

Content from this section was deleted on Wikipedia from
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
; there may be found information useful to the improvement of this article

These numbers make a total of 255,503 foreign troops stationed in Russia during the civil war.


  1. Guarding the Railroad, Taming the Cossacks-The U.S. Army in Russia, 1918 - 1920 Gibson Bell Smith
  2. Beyer, Rick (2003). The Greatest Stories Never Told. A&E Television Networks / The History Channel. ISBN 0-06-001401-6.
  3. Bullock, p. 7 "Peripheral regions of the former Russian Empire that had broken away to form new nations had to fight for independence: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan." -David Bullock. The Russian Civil War 1918–22. Osprey Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84603-271-4
  4. Robert L. Willett, Russian Sideshow, p. xxiii
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 A History of Russia, 7th Edition, Nichlas V. Riasanovsky & Mark D. Steinberg, Oxford University Press, 2005
  6. Guarding the Railroad, Taming the Cossacks The U.S. Army in Russia, 1918–1920, Smith, Gibson Bell (accessed 5 July 2007)
  7. Major Ioannis Gemenetzis, (2005). "Εκστρατεία στη Μεσημβρινή Ρωσία 1919," Στρατιωτική Επιθεώρηση, {{{volume}}}, 122–137.
  8. Jaan Maide (1933). Ülevaade Eesti vabadussõjast 1918—1920 (Estonian War of Independence 1918—1920: Overview) (in Estonian), Tallinn: Estonian Defence League.
  9. Joana Breidenbach (2005). Pál Nyíri, Joana Breidenbach China inside out: contemporary Chinese nationalism and transnationalism, illustrated, Central European University Press. URL accessed 18 March 2012. "At the end of the year 1918, after the Russian Revolution, the Chinese merchants in the Russian Far East demanded the Chinese government to send troops for their protection, and Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect the Chinese community: about 1600 soldiers and 700 support personnel."