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Republic of Estonia (1990-1991)

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The Republic of Estonia, short: Estonia (in Estonian: Eesti Vabariik, short: Eesti) was a short-lived country located on the present territory of Estonia, 1990 - 1991. The Republic of Estonia had land borders to the south with Latvian SSR (339 km) and Soviet Union (229 km) to the east.

On March 3, 1990, a referendum was held on the question of Estonia’s independence. 82.9 % of all the eligible voters took part, 77.8 of whom voted for independent Estonia (almost all Estonians and about 30 % of non-Estonians).

The leadership of the 'Estonian SSR (independent)' renamed the state The 'Republic of Estonia' again on May 8, 1990. On May 8 the Supreme Council passed the law on Estonian national symbols; Estonian SSR became the Republic of Estonia; blue-black-white were taken as state colours and the 1937 Constitution’s paragraphs 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were implemented. The first of them stated that ‘Estonia is an independent and sovereign republic where the highest power belongs to people.’ Soon the previous independence period’s flag and coat of arms were made lawful. Moscow’s proposal of a special status in the Soviet Union on the basis of a confederation pact, was rejected. A decision by the Estonian Supreme Council of May 16, 1990, established that the judicial system of the Republic of Estonia was to be founded on the will of the Estonian people and universally recognised norms of international law. Estonia gradually moved away from the Soviet Union: the legislative, executive and court power were separated from the corresponding Soviet institutions, the leading role of the Communist Party of Estland was abolished and a pluralist political system was established. On the way to full independence, the victims of Soviet persecution were rehabilitated, and the Estonian economic border was fixed. With the privatisation of small enterprises and restoration of farms, the country started its path towards a market economy. During the days of the August 1991 coup attempt the Estonian Supreme Council confirmed once more the national sovereignty of the Republic of Estonia and requested that diplomatic relations be restored on the basis of continuity. [unverified]

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