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Post-Cold War covert regime change by the US

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The United States government has been involved in and assisted in overthrowing many governments without the use of overt military force, primarily through the Central Intelligence Agency.


According to a variety of sources,[1][2][3] the United States of America government has forcibly overthrown, and attempted to overthrow, foreign governments perceived as hostile, and replaced them with new ones, actions that has become known as regime change.[1][2][3] It has been noted that governments targeted by the U.S. have included democratically-elected governments, thus the target regimes are not necessarily authoritarian governments or juntas, but in some cases are replaced by such dictatorships. In other cases dictatorships have been replaced by democracies.

Regime change has been attempted through direct involvement of U.S. operatives, the funding and training of insurgency groups within these countries, anti-regime propaganda campaigns, coup d'états, and other, often illegal, activities usually conducted as operations by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The U.S. has also accomplished regime change by direct U.S. military action, see List of United States military history events, instead of by covert means.

It has been argued that non-transparent United States government agencies who work in secret and sometimes mislead or do not fully implement the decisions of elected civilian leaders has been an important component of many such operations.[4]

For example the historian Spencer R. Weart has argued that the US has more supported coups against democracies that it perceived as nondemocracies, such as Communist states, or turning into such.[4]

Notwithstanding a history of U.S. covert actions to topple democratic governments and installing authoritarian regimes in their places (see, e.g. Iran 1953, below), some U.S. officials have publicly expressed support for democray as best supporting US national interests: "democracy is the one national interest that helps to secure all the others. Democratically governed nations are more likely to secure the peace, deter aggression, expand open markets, promote economic development, protect American citizens, combat international terrorism and crime, uphold human and worker rights, avoid humanitarian crises and refugee flows, improve the global environment, and protect human health."[5] Former President Bill Clinton of the Democratic Party: "Ultimately, the best strategy to ensure our security and to build a durable peace is to support the advance of democracy elsewhere. Democracies don't attack each other."[6] In one view mentioned by the US State Department, democracy is also good for business. In this view, countries that embrace political reforms are more likely to pursue economic reforms that improve the productivity of businesses. Accordingly, since the mid-1980s, there has been an increase in levels of foreign direct investment going to emerging market democracies relative to countries that have not undertaken political reforms.[7]

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, launched by China and Russia and later joined by other Asian governments, has been seen as an attempt to stop regime changes that would establish a world of market democracies arbitrated by U.S. power.[8]

Since the end of the Cold War[edit]

Iraq 1992-1995[edit]

According to former U.S. intelligence officials interviewed by the New York Times, the CIA orchestrated a bomb and sabotage campaign between 1992 and 1995 in Iraq via one of the insurgent organizations, the Iraqi National Accord, led by Iyad Allawi. The campaign had no apparent effect in toppling Saddam Hussein's rule.[9]

According to the Iraqi government at the time, and former CIA officer Robert Baer, the bombing campaign against Baghdad included both government and civilian targets. According to this former CIA official, the civilian targets included a movie theater and a bombing of a school bus and schoolchildren were killed. No public records of the secret bombing campaign are known to exist, and the former U.S. officials said their recollections were in many cases sketchy, and in some cases contradictory. "But whether the bombings actually killed any civilians could not be confirmed because, as a former CIA official said, the United States had no significant intelligence sources in Iraq then." The Iraqi government at the time claimed that the bombs, including one it said exploded in a movie theater, resulted in many civilian casualties. In 1996, Amneh al-Khadami, who described himself as the chief bomb maker for the Iraqi National Accord, recorded a videotape in which he talked of the bombing campaign and complained that he was being shortchanged money and supplies. Two former intelligence officers confirmed the existence of the videotape. Mr. Khadami said that "we blew up a car, and we were supposed to get $2,000" but got only $1,000, as reported in 1997 by the British newspaper The Independent, which had obtained a copy of the videotape.[9] The campaign was directed by CIA asset Dr. Iyad Allawi,[10] later installed as interim prime minister by the U.S.-led coalition that invaded Iraq in 2003.

Guatemala 1993[edit]

In 1993 the CIA helped in overthrowing Jorge Serrano Elías. Jorge then attempted a self-coup, suspended the constitution, dissolved Congress and the Supreme Court, and imposed censorship. He was replaced by Ramiro de León Carpio.[11]

Zimbabwe 2000s[edit]

Robert Mugabe accused the United States of trying to remove him in a potentially illegal regime change.[12][13][14]

Serbia 2000[edit]

The United States is alleged to have made secret effort to topple the dictator Slobodan Milosevic in Serbia. The 5 October Revolution removed Milošević and installed a democratic government.[15][16]

Venezuela 2002[edit]

See also 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt

In 2002, Washington is claimed to have approved and supported a coup against the democratically-elected Venezuelan government, acting through senior officials of the U.S. government, including Special Envoy to Latin America Otto Reich and convicted Iran-contra figure and George W. Bush "democracy 'czar'" Elliott Abrams, who have long histories in the U.S. backed "Dirty Wars" of the 1980s in Central America, and links to U.S.-supported death squads working in Central America at that time.[17] Top coup plotters, including Pedro Carmona, the man installed during the coup as the new president, began visits to the White House months before the coup and continued until weeks before the putsch. The plotters were received at the White House by the man President George W. Bush tasked to be his key policy-maker for Latin America, Special Envoy Otto Reich.[17] It has been claimed by Venezuelan news sources that Reich was the U.S. mastermind of the coup.[18]

Former U.S. Navy intelligence officer Wayne Madsen, told the British newspaper the Guardian that American military attaches had been in touch with members of the Venezuelan military to explore the possibility of a coup. "I first heard of Lieutenant Colonel James Rogers [the assistant military attache now based at the U.S. embassy in Caracas] going down there last June [2001] to set the ground," Mr. Madsen reported, adding: "Some of our counter-narcotics agents were also involved." He claims the U.S. Navy assisted with signals intelligence as the coup played out and helped by jamming communications for the Venezuelan military, focusing on jamming communications to and from the diplomatic missions in Caracas. The U.S. embassy dismissed the allegations as "ridiculous".[19]

The U.S. also funded opposition groups in the year leading up to the coup, channeling hundreds of thousands of dollars in grants to U.S. and Venezuelan groups opposed to President Hugo Chavez, including the labor group whose protests sparked off the coup. The funds were provided by the National Endowment for Democracy (NED),[19] a nonprofit organization whose roots, according to an article in Slate trace back to the late 1960s when the public learned of CIA machinations to covertly fund parties and activists opposing the Soviets. Congress created the NED in 1983 which disburses money to pro-democracy groups around the globe and do so openly.[20] The State Department is now examining whether one or more recipients of the NED money may have actively plotted against the Venezuelan government.[19]

Bush Administration officials and anonymous sources acknowledged meeting with some of the planners of the coup in the several weeks prior to April 11, but have strongly denied encouraging the coup itself, saying that they insisted on constitutional means.[21] Because of allegations, Sen. Christopher Dodd requested a review of U.S. activities leading up to and during the coup attempt. A U.S. State Department Office of Inspector General report found no "wrongdoing" by U.S. officials either in the State Department or in the U.S. Embassy.[22]

Georgia, 2003[edit]

There are allegations from Russia that the United States supported the Rose Revolution, which installed a pro-US government.[23][24]

Ukraine, 2004[edit]

The CIA is alleged to have organized demonstrators to protest the elections as a fraud.[23][24][25] Declarations by Ukrainian national and local institutions afterwards carried the weight of authority to turn around completely the results of the polls to declare Yushchenko, who had lost the election, the winner.[25] This demonstration could well have been harmless to the CIA had Yushchenko been declared the winner, as these institutions would have carried even more weight with the polls behind them. As it happened, they gave a pretext to the institutions. This is completely consistent with the CIA's MO in Iran ('53), and other nations, where they give themselves a backup strategy.[26] The institutions' declarations are the prime mover, and either the election results or the demonstrations synergize with them.

Equatorial Guinea and Zimbabwe 2004[edit]

Zimbabwe has accused the United States of involvement in a 2004 attempted coup against Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, dictator of Equatorial Guinea.[27] However, since Equatorial Guinea is an incredibly rich nation with its wealth and power in the hands of a very few conservatives, and Zimbabwe has been the target for international conservative propaganda since its revolution, it would seem far more likely that Zimbabwe itself was the target.

Lebanon 2005[edit]

On the 5th of March, 2005, the New York Post reported:
U.S. intelligence sources told The Post that CIA and European intelligence services are quietly giving money and logistical support to organizers of the anti-Syrian protests to ramp up the pressure on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to completely quit Lebanon[28][29][30]

The Wikipedia:Cedar Revolution followed, and is thus claimed to have been influenced by the CIA.

Palestinian Authority, 2006-Present[edit]

Following the Palestinian election in 2006 in which Hamas won the majority of seats in the Palestinian parliament, the U.S. backed an armed force under Fatah strongman Muhammad Dahlan, touching off a bloody civil war in Gaza and the West Bank which was successful in removig Hamas from power in the West Bank. [31] The Asia Times Online reports that article that since at least January 2006, the United States has supplied guns, ammunition and training to Palestinian Fatah group (which won the Palestinian presidential election, 2005) in order to overthrow the Hamas government elected in the Palestinian legislative election, 2006. Apparently headed up by Elliott Abrams, the U.S. supply of rifles and ammunition, which started as a mere trickle, has become a torrent and a large number of Fatah men have been trained at two West Bank camps to attack Hamas supporters in the streets. The Israeli daily newspaper Ha'aretz reported that the U.S. has designated an astounding US$86.4 million for Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas' security detail. The article states that U.S. arming of Fatah continued even though some officials predicted that it could lead to a Palestinian civil war, which would be an unwelcome development by most countries of the region. An anonymous official stated: "Who the hell outside of Washington wants to see a civil war among Palestinians?" According to an Asia Times article, Elliott Abrams had also publicly advocated a "hard coup" against the newly elected Hamas government, but U.S. spokesmen later dismissed these remarks as due to momentary frustration. CIA, the US military, and Israel have been critical. Officially the support is for "assist[ing] the Palestinian Authority presidency in fulfilling PA commitments under the roadmap to dismantle the infrastructure of terrorism and establish law and order in the West Bank and Gaza"[32]

Hamas Foreign Minister Dr. Mahmoud al-Zahar has called the arming of Fatah by the United States an "American coup d'état" against the democratically-elected Palestinian government.[33] Hamas is listed as a terrorist organization by many Western nations.

BBC states that after months of street fighting in which hundreds of Palestinians were killed and the Gaza Strip were seized by the Hamas armed forces, (see Battle of Gaza (2007)), Palestinian Authority President and Fatah leader Mahmoud Abbas dismissed the Hamas-led government in June 2007, and a new unelected "emergency cabinet," led by Prime Minister Salam Fayyad, was sworn in in place of the Hamas government in the West Bank.[34]

Somalia 2006-2007[edit]

Although the United States has had an ongoing interest in Somalia for decades, in early 2006 the CIA began a program of funding a coalition of anti-Islamic warlords.[35] This involved the support of CIA case workers operating out of the Nairobi, Kenya office funneling payments of hundreds of thousands of dollars to the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism. As the power balance shifted towards this alliance, the CIA program backfired and the militias of the Islamic Court Union (ICU) gained control of the country. Although the ICU was locally supported for having restored a relative level of peace[36] to the volatile region after having defeated the CIA-funded Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism in the Second Battle of Mogadishu, concerns about the growth and popular support for an Islamic country during the United States' War on Terror led to a new approach of the intervention of CIA, the United States military and Ethiopia's dominantly Christian government.

In late December 2006 a United States-trained[37] and funded Ethiopian Military force attacked militias of the ICU in a series of battles known as the War in Somalia.

The use of the Ethiopian Army was seen by the United States as an awkward, but necessary way to prevent Somalia from being ruled by an Islamic government unsympathetic to American interests. In December 2006 State Department officials were issued internal guidelines and talking points such as “The press must not be allowed to make this about Ethiopia, or Ethiopia violating the territorial integrity of Somalia...”[35] Because of Ethiopia's known human rights abuses such as the massacre of 193 protesters after the 2005 presidential elections, there is conflict between the strategic interest Ethiopia's army and leadership provides in the War on Terror and the human rights this war is allegedly addressing. This conflict has manifested itself in the United States Congress where the Ethiopia Democracy and Accountability Act of 2007, calls for the millions of foreign aid to Ethiopia only be delivered if there are significant improvements in the democracy and human rights in that country. The Bush Administration and Samuel Assefa, Ethiopia’s ambassador to the US are strongly opposed to the bill.[38]

Venezuela 2007[edit]

Main article: Operation Pliers

Venezuela claims that a confidential memorandum (concerning Operation Pliers) from the US embassy to the CIA revealed and circulated by the Venezuelan government on November 26, 2007 provides details on the activity of a CIA unit engaged in clandestine action to destabilize the forth-coming national referendum and to coordinate the civil and military overthrow of the democratically-elected government of Venezuela. According to the Venezuelan government, the memo, entitled "Advancing to the Last Phase of Operation Pincer," was sent by Michael Middleton Steere addressed to the Director of CIA, Michael Hayden, and outlines covert Operation Pincer (OP) (Operación Tenaza).[39]

According to these claims, Operation Pincer entails a two-pronged strategy of impeding the upcoming national referendum of December 2, 2007 on important changes to the Venezuelan constitution urged by the government of President Hugo Chavez, rejecting the outcome, and at the same time calling for a 'no' vote. In the run up to the referendum, OP includes running phony polls, attacking electoral officials and running propaganda through the private media accusing the government of fraud and calling for a 'no' vote. Contradictions, the report emphasizes, are of no matter.[39]

The US Embassy memo calls for the mobilization of students at private university, backed by top administrators, to attack key government buildings including the Presidential Palace, Supreme Court and the National Electoral Council. The US Embassy provided $8 million dollars in propaganda alone, according to the Embassy memo, to shape the university students' views; the right-wing opposition and the business elite through free air time on the private right-wing media, have organized a majority of the upper middle class students from the private universities, backed by the Catholic Church hierarchy. Small Trotskyist sects and their trade unionists join the ex-Maoists in opposing the constitutional amendments.[39]

According to these claims, the ultimate objective of Operation Pincer as outlined in the memo is to seize a territorial or institutional base with "massive support" of the defeated electoral minority within three or four days, presumably after the elections, backed by an uprising by oppositionist military officers principally in the National Guard. The Embassy operative concede that the military plotters have run into serious problems as key intelligence operatives were detected, stores of arms were decommissioned and several plotters are under tight surveillance. Apart from the deep involvement of the US, the primary organization of the Venezuelan business elite (FEDECAMARAS), as well as all the major private television, radio and newspaper outlets have been engaged in a campaign of fear and intimidation campaign against the referendum and any results thereof.[39][40] According to the International Herald Tribune, Benjamin Ziff, an embassy spokesman said:[41][41][42]

Of course there is the possibility that the memo really was a fake. None of the denials had any convincing evidence, possibly because they did not have the memo to examine for evidence of forgery (paper or ink type, etc), and the usual difficulty in proving a negative.

Indulging in some speculation, there are only 3, unrelated, results on Google Books returned for the search phrase "Venezuela 2007 Operation Pincer" and "Venezuela 2007 Operation Pliers" put together, which is a markedly curious event in itself. It is conceivable that leftists were completely disheartened by the denial campaign, but right-wingers ignore an opportunity to discredit and debunk? This is very much in the manner of Wikipedia removing fringe stories rather than reporting on them and letting the reader decide, or even reporting on fringe stories because they are interesting.

And finally, there is the possibility that the memo was itself Wikipedia:Black propaganda of an unusual sort; the source being exactly as it appeared, while the content itself was bogus. Black propaganda is usually both.

Iran 2001-present[edit]

The United States is alleged to have targeted Iran and several other Muslim countries for regime change starting at least in 2001. The book War and Decision written by Undersecretary of Defence for Policy Douglas Feith quotes a high level government policy memorandum written after September 11, 2001, stating that the United States should "[c]apitalize on our strong suit, which is not finding a few hundred terrorists in caves in Afghanistan, but in the vastness of our military and humanitarian resources, which can strengthen the opposition forces in terrorist-supporting states."[43] The memorandum outlined a list of military actions to be undertaken against some of these states. Undersecretary Feith and Gen. Wesley Clark confirmed that Iran is on this list.

U.S. commando units[edit]

The Asia Times cites a New Yorker Magazine's investigative report, according to which the U.S. has military commando units operating inside Iran.[44] That same article in Asia Times reported that U.S. policy is one of lighting "the fire of ethnic and sectarian strife" to destabilize and eventually topple the government of Iran. The Washington Quarterly magazine as cited by the Asia Times article, reported:

the Sunni Balochi resistance could prove valuable to Western intelligence agencies with an interest in destabilizing the hardline regime in Tehran... The United States maintained close contacts with the Balochis till 2001, at which point it withdrew support when Tehran promised to repatriate any U.S. airmen who had to land in Iran as a result of damage sustained in combat operations in Afghanistan.[44]

The Baluchis militants accuse the government of discriminatory and repressive policies. Hossein Ali Shahriari, the representative from Zahedan in Parliament, said the attack had been carried out by “insurgents and smugglers who are led by the world imperialism,” a common reference to the United States and Britain.[45]

Jundullah militants[edit]

ABC news reported, citing U.S. and Pakistani intelligence sources, that U.S. officials have been secretly encouraging and advising a Pakistani Balochi militant group named Jundullah that is responsible for a series of deadly guerrilla raids inside Iran. The Jundullah militants "stage attacks across the border into Iran on Iranian military officers, Iranian intelligence officers, kidnapping them, executing them on camera," This militant group is led by a youthful leader, Abd el Malik Regi, sometimes known as "Regi." The U.S. provides no direct funding to the group, which would require an official presidential order or "presidential finding" as well as congressional oversight. Tribal sources tell ABC News that money for Jundullah is funneled to Abd el Malik Regi through Iranian exiles who have connections with European and Persian Gulf states. A CIA spokesperson said "the account of alleged CIA action is false," and reiterated that the U.S. provides no funding of the Jundullah group.[46] Regi and Jundullah are also suspected of being associated with al Qaida, a charge that the group has denied. Jundullah "is a vicious Salafi organization whose followers attended the same madrassas as the Taliban and Pakistani extremists,” sccording to Professor Vali Nasr, “They are suspected of having links to Al Qaeda and they are also thought to be tied to the drug culture."[47] Regi "used to fight with the Taliban. He's part drug smuggler, part Taliban, part Sunni activist," said Alexis Debat, a senior fellow on counterterrorism at the Nixon Center and an ABC News consultant who recently met with Pakistani officials and tribal members. "Regi is essentially commanding a force of several hundred guerrilla fighters that stage attacks across the border into Iran on Iranian military officers, Iranian intelligence officers, kidnapping them, executing them on camera," Debat said. Most recently, Jundullah took credit for an attack in February that killed at least 11 members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard riding on a bus in the Iranian city of Zahedan.[46]

Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan[edit]

Another claimed US proxy inside Iran has been the Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan (PEJAK). The New Yorker reported in November 2006 that a U.S. government consultant with close ties to the Pentagon civilian leadership leaked the news of secret US support for PEJAK for operations inside Iran, stating that the group had been given “a list of targets inside Iran of interest to the U.S.”.[48]

People's Mujahedin of Iran[edit]

Another alleged terrorist group protected by the United States operates out of Iraq. The People's Mujahedin of Iran, PMOI, known also as the Mujahedeen-e Khalq or MEK is dedicated to the overthrow of the Iranian regime and is accused of orchestrating a series of bombings inside Iran, including one attack that left the current supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, partially paralyzed. [49] The United States military has protected the PMOI inside its military camp and on supply runs to Baghdad. Since 1997, the U.S. lists the group as a terrorist organization.

They're terrorists only when we consider them terrorists. They might be terrorists in everybody else's books . . . . It was a strange group of people and the leadership was extremely cruel and extremely vicious."

said Lawrence Wilkerson, former Secretary of State Colin Powell's chief of staff.[49]

Myanmar (Burma), 2007[edit]

Myanmar's junta has stated that nationwide monk protests, which took place in August and September, were the results of timely collaborated plots of "a Western power" and antigovernment groups aiming to install a puppet government in the country. The Myanmar junta used to refer to the United States as "a Western power".[50]

See also[edit]


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  2. 2.0 2.1 Edward S. Herman. From Guatemala to Iraq How the pitbull manages his poodles by. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kinzer, Stephen Author Kinzer Charts 'Century of Regime Change'. NPR. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Weart, Spencer R. (1998). Never at War, Yale University Press.p. 221-224, 314.}}
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  10. Wurmser, David (1997-11-12). "Iraq Needs a Revolution". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  11. Report on the Guatemala Review, Intelligence Oversight Board. June 28, 1996.
  12. 'CIA behind Tsvangirai trip'. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
  13. We won't tolerate regime change, Mugabe tells UN Assembly. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
  14. "Regime Change Mission Has Failed in Zimbabwe". Pan-African News Wire. 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2008-11-21. </li>
  15. CIA Plan to Topple Milosevic 'Absurd". Federation of American Scientists. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
  16. Bringing Down Dictators: American Democracy Promotion and Electoral Revolutions in Postcommunist Eurasia
  17. 17.0 17.1 Vulliamy, Ed (2002-04-21). "Venezuela coup linked to Bush team". The Observer. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  18. VHeadline, June 24, 2004
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Campbell, Duncan (2002-04-29). "American navy 'helped Venezuelan coup'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  20. Brendan I. Koerner (2004-01-22). "What's the National Endowment for Democracy?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
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  22. Inspector General Report, U.S. Department of State
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  26. See ref's in Special Activities Division
  27. "Zimbabwe: West aided 'mercenaries'". 2004-03-10. Retrieved 2008-11-21. </li>
  28. Niles Lathem. Give us Leb-erty! Protesters slam Syria in massive Beirut Rally.
  29. NY Post
  30. Lebanon: Some Things That Money Can't Buy. URL accessed on 2008-11-21.
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  33. Mahmoud al-Zahar (2008-04-16). "No Peace Without Hamas". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  34. "Palestinian rivals: Fatah & Hamas". BBC News. 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  35. 35.0 35.1 Mazzetti, Mark (2006-12-27). "U.S. Signals Backing for Ethiopian Incursion Into Somalia". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  36. Timberg, Craig (2006-06-16). "Guns Finally Silent In Somalia's Capital". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  37. Morin, Monte (2006-12-30). "U.S. trainers prepare Ethiopians to fight". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  38. Barney Jopson (Nairobi); Daniel Dombey (Washington) (2008-11-20). "Ethiopia bill faces Bush backlash". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 James Petras, "Counterattack as Fateful Referendum Looms: CIA Venezuela Destabilization Memo Surfaces," Counterpunch, November 28, 2007.
  40. "Venezuela waits for reform result". BBC News. 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2007-12-04. </li>
  41. 41.0 41.1 Romero, Simon (November 30, 2007). "In Chávez territory, signs of dissent". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-12-04. </li>
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  43. "Pentagon Targeted Iran for Regime Change after 9/11", Inter Press Service, May 5, 2008.
  44. 44.0 44.1 M K Bhadrakumar (2007-02-24). "Foreign devils in the Iranian mountains". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  45. Fathi, Nazila (2007-02-15). "Car Bomb in Iran Destroys a Bus Carrying Revolutionary Guards". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20. </li>
  46. 46.0 46.1 Brian Ross; Christopher Isham (2007-04-03). "Exclusive: The Secret War Against Iran". The Blotter Blog (ABC News). Retrieved 2008-11-21. </li>
  47. Seymour Hersh, "Preparing the Battlefield, The Bush Administration Steps Up Its Secret Moves Against Iran," The New Yorker, July 8, 2008.
  48. Hersh, Seymour M (2006-11-20). "The Next Act". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2006-11-19. </li>
  49. 49.0 49.1 McClatchy Newspapers December 31, 2008, "Cult-like Iranian Militant Group Worries About its Future in Iraq"
  50. Myanmar junta accuses Western powers of encouraging anti-junta protests+. Asian Political News. Kyodo News International. URL accessed on 2008-11-20.
  51. </ol>

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