Still working to recover. Please don't edit quite yet.

CIA drug trafficking

From Anarchopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
See also Wikipedia:CIA transnational anti-crime and anti-drug activities
This article contains content from Wikipedia
An article on this subject has been nominated for deletion on Wikipedia:
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/
CIA drug trafficking

Current versions of the GNU FDL article on WP may contain information useful to the improvement of this article

Various sources allege the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (WP) has been involved in drug trafficking operations throughout Asia, Australia, the Americas, and the Middle East: opium planting, growing, harvesting and smuggling; processing of heroin, development of heroin processing capability and smuggling of heroin; and sales of cocaine, opium, and heroin.[1] These operations began in the 1940s, when the CIA was still the OSS,[2] and continued at least until the 1990s.[1] Often, the CIA worked with groups which it knew were involved in drug trafficking, so that these groups would provide them with useful intelligence and material support, in exchange for allowing their criminal activities to continue[3], and impeding or preventing their arrest, indictment, and imprisonment by U.S. law enforcement agencies[4].

The CIA is involved in malfeasance and corruption related to drug smuggling. Congress has investigated some allegations and, despite the CIA's unwillingness to cooperate, found that CIA assets were involved in trafficking cocaine.[5]

This article may contain material from Wikipedia
An article on this subject has been redirected
to another page on WP:
CIA drug trafficking
Current versions of the GNU FDL article on Wikipedia may contain information useful to the improvement of this article


The CIA was closely linked, at the very least through its financial support, to the Corsican Mafia, paying them to suppress of the political activity of French communists. The Corsican Mafia, also linked to the French intelligence Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE), ran the French Connection drug trading ring.[6]

"In the late 1940s, the CIA funneled arms and funds to the Corsican Mafia in return for their assistance in breaking up widespread labour strikes in France that were threatening to establish communist control over the Old Port of Marseille. The Corsican crime syndicate, in turn, used the CIA support to set up the trafficking network known as “The French Connection” which saw heroin smuggled from Turkey to France, and shipped to the US, feeding an American heroin epidemic."-Corbett Report[7][8]


CIA drug trafficking in Asia began with the Wikipedia:Mafia move to Asia in the 1950s,[2] but expanded throughout Asia and to many other organizations.

Golden Triangle[edit]

The CIA assisted opium planting, growing, harvesting, smuggling, processing, development of processing capability, and sales throughout the entire Golden Triangle area for decades.[1]

CIA and Kuomintang (KMT) opium smuggling operations[edit]

See Wikipedia:Operation Paper Clip

In order to provide covert funds for the Kuomintang (KMT) forces loyal to Generalissimo Wikipedia:Chiang Kai-Shek, who were fighting the Chinese Wikipedia:communists under Wikipedia:Mao, the Wikipedia:CIA helped the KMT smuggle Wikipedia:opium from [China]] and Wikipedia:Burma to Wikipedia:Bangkok, Thailand by providing airplanes owned by one of their front businesses, Wikipedia:Air America[9][10] (originally Civil Air Transport[1]). An envoy in the American embassy who was later to become Assistant Secretary of Defense, Richard Armitage, financed drug smuggling in Vietnam and Bangkok from 1975 to 1979.[1]

Vietnam / Laos / Cambodia[edit]

The Central Intelligence Agency was involved in smuggling opium produced in Western Wikipedia:Vietnam and Eastern Wikipedia:Cambodia to Wikipedia:heroin producers in the United States. Agents of the U.S. Government used drug production and trafficking operations to fund covert military activities in Vietnam[1][11][12][13]. It flew in chemists and lab technicians from Hong Kong specifically to develop processing capability to allow higher grade heroin to be produced.[1] Large amounts of this heroin were sold to U.S. soldiers in Vietnam[1][14]

The CIA worked in concert with the Corsican crime families, and Laotian drug lords, who assisted the CIA in their fight against communists. One of the CIA's primary contacts was Hmong leader Wikipedia:Vang Pao, who was attempting to gain complete control of the local opium trade, and was using the income from this to fight against Laotian and Vietnamese communist forces[15][16].

The smuggling continued through at least 1979 (see previous section)[1]


See Wikipedia:Nugan Hand Bank

West Asia[edit]

Soviet Afghanistan[edit]

Template:Expand section

The CIA supported various Afghan drug lords, such as Mujahideen leader Wikipedia:Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who were fighting against the government of Wikipedia:Afghanistan and the forces of the Wikipedia:Soviet Union which were its supporters.[17]. American CIA agents were helping smuggle opium out of Wikipedia:Afghanistan, into the West, in order to raise money for the Wikipedia:Afghan resistance.

Historian Alfred W. McCoy stated that:[18]

"In most cases, the CIA's role involved various forms of complicity, tolerance or studied ignorance about the trade, not any direct culpability in the actual trafficking ... [t]he CIA did not handle heroin, but it did provide its Wikipedia:drug-lord allies with transport, arms, and political protection. In sum, the CIA's role in the Southeast Asian heroin trade involved indirect complicity rather than direct culpability."

Afghanistan 2001 - Current[edit]

The CIA and the Afghan Drug Trade

The U.S. government devoted billions of dollars to the proxy war in Afghanistan. Most of this was funneled through the Pentagon’s infamous Black Budget, secret funds for secret operations. In 1981 this budget was estimated at $9 billion but rose to $36 billion by 1990. The CIA obtained cash to buy weapons and other equipment which was then channeled to the Islamist rebels.

In the Afghan operation the CIA provided cash to the Pakistan government, primarily through its accounts with the BCCI; the former U.S. Commissioner of Customs William von Raab said that when customs agents raided the bank in 1988, they found numerous CIA accounts.[19][20] Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), best known for laundering illegal drug money. As John Cooley notes, "The CIA already had a history of using corrupt or criminal banks for its overseas operations." In the 1980s the CIA and the Pentagon’s Defense Intelligence Agency were using the BCCI for covert operations. First American, in Washington, D.C., was one of the CIA banks of choice, and it had been acquired by BCCI. The CIA worked with the BCCI in arming and financing the Wikipedia:Afghan mujahideen during the Afghan War against the Wikipedia:Soviet Union, using BCCI to launder proceeds from trafficking heroin grown in the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands, boosting the flow of narcotics to European and U.S. markets.[21]

The CIA also used the BCCI to launder money for the Wikipedia:Iran-Contra drug funds.

BCCI had close links to the Pakistan government. During the Afghan jihad BCCI officials actually took control of the customs house at the port of Karachi where shipments of arms were sent by the CIA to Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI). They made cash payments to the ISI, part of which were payoffs, but large sums were also needed to finance the transportation of armaments to the Afghan border and beyond. As Brigadier Mohammad Yousaf reports, much of the CIA aid came in the form of cash. This was used to purchase hundreds of trucks and thousands of horses, mules and camels, in addition to the materials needed to build the training bases for the mujahideen fighters.

The CIA would inform the Pakistan government about the shipments. When the armaments and supplies were landed in Karachi they came under the control of the National Logistics Cell of the Pakistan army and the ISI. They trucked the materials north to the various bases. On the way back the trucks carried opium and heroin for export from Karachi, mainly to the United States. Some of the heroin factories were directly under the control of the ISI, and the whole operation had the support of Pakistan General Fazle Haq, the protector of the industry. President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq had appointed him the military commander of the Northwest Frontier Province. He was also directly involved in the heroin trade and laundering money through the BCCI.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

The decision to invade Afghanistan in 2001 fits perfectly into the opium timeline (9/11 as a false flag operation, less so); in a partnership with the UN, the Taliban began to crack down in 2000 on the production of opium, which had reached 70-80% of the world's supply since 1992, and by 2001 it was almost nonexistent.[30][31]


CIA drug trafficking more or less began, returned to, and went underground in, the United States. It began with Wikipedia:Mafia connections (which began the move to Asia in the 1950s),[2] and ended with the surge in use of Wikipedia:crack cocaine.[2]

Iran Contra Affair[edit]

Main article Wikipedia:CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US (WP)

Released on April 13, 1989, the Wikipedia:Kerry Committee report concluded that members of the U.S. State Department "who provided support for the Contras were involved in drug trafficking...and elements of the Contras themselves knowingly received financial and material assistance from drug traffickers."

Gary Webb[edit]

In 1996 Wikipedia:Gary Webb wrote a series of articles published in the Wikipedia:San Jose Mercury News, which claimed to have made an indirect link between the CIA and the Contras, and direct links between drug traffickers and both the CIA and Contras. Webb investigated Nicaraguans linked to the CIA-backed Contras who had allegedly smuggled cocaine into the U.S. which was then distributed as crack cocaine into Los Angeles and funneled profits to the Contras. According to Webb, the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of drugs into the U.S. by the Contra personnel and directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras.[32]

In 1996 CIA Director Wikipedia:John M. Deutch went to Los Angeles to attempt to refute the allegations raised by the Wikipedia:Gary Webb articles, and was famously confronted by former LAPD officer Wikipedia:Michael Ruppert, who testified that he had witnessed it occurring.[33] Yet the US Inspector General found "no evidence in the course of this lengthy investigation of any conspiracy by CIA or its employees to bring drugs into the United States". Webbs articles were heavily attacked by many media outlets who questions the validity of his claims.

The CIA has been accused of moneylaundering the Wikipedia:iran-contra drug funds via the BCCI, the former U.S. Commissioner of Customs William von Raab said that when customs agents raided the bank in 1988, they found numerous CIA accounts.[34][35] The CIA also worked with BCCI in arming and financing the Wikipedia:Afghan mujahideen during the Afghan War against the Wikipedia:Soviet Union, using BCCI to launder proceeds from trafficking heroin grown in the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands, boosting the flow of narcotics to European and U.S. markets.[36]

On Wikipedia:December 10 Wikipedia:2004, Gary Webb was found dead.[37] Sacramento County Wikipedia:coroner Robert Lyons determined that it was Wikipedia:suicide, despite the fact that there were TWO gunshot wounds to his head.[38]

Mena, Arkansas[edit]

A number of allegations have been written about and several local, state, and federal investigations have taken place related to the notion of the Wikipedia:Mena Intermountain Municipal Airport as a CIA drop point in large scale cocaine trafficking beginning in the latter part of the 1980s. The topic has received some press coverage that has included allegations of awareness, participation and/or coverup involvement of figures such as future presidents Wikipedia:Bill Clinton,[39][40][41][42] Wikipedia:George H. W. Bush, and Wikipedia:George W. Bush, as well future Florida Governor Wikipedia:Jeb Bush and Saline County prosecutor Dan Harmon (who was convicted of numerous felonies including drug and racketeering charges in 1997[43]). The Mena airport was also associated with Adler Berriman (Barry) Seal, an American drug smuggler and aircraft pilot who flew covert flights for the CIA and the Wikipedia:Medellín Cartel.[44]

A criminal investigator from the Wikipedia:Arkansas State Police, Wikipedia:Russell Welch, who was assigned to investigate Mena airport[45][46] claimed that he opened a letter which released electrostatically charged Wikipedia:Anthrax spores in his face, and that he had his life saved after a prompt diagnosis by a doctor.Template:who Later, his doctor's office was vandalized, robbed, and test results and correspondence with the CDC in Atlanta were stolen.[47][48] [49] [50] [51] [52]

An investigation by the CIA's inspector general concluded that the CIA had no involvement in or knowledge of any illegal activities that may have occurred in Mena. The report said that the agency had conducted a training exercise at the airport in partnership with another Federal agency and that companies located at the airport had performed "routine aviation-related services on equipment owned by the CIA".[53]


See also: Mexican Drug War

According to Wikipedia:Peter Dale Scott, the Wikipedia:Dirección Federal de Seguridad was in part a CIA creation, and "the CIA's closest government allies were for years in the DFS". DFS badges, "handed out to top-level Mexican drug-traffickers, have been labelled by DEA agents a virtual 'license to traffic.'"[54] Scott says that "The Wikipedia:Guadalajara Cartel, Mexico's most powerful drug-trafficking network in the early 1980s, prospered largely because it enjoyed the protection of the DFS, under its chief Miguel Nassar (orNazar) Haro, a CIA asset."[54]

Venezuelan National Guard Affair[edit]

The CIA - in spite of objections from the Drug Enforcement Administration, allowed at least one ton of nearly pure cocaine to be shipped into Wikipedia:Miami International Airport. The CIA claimed to have done this as a way of gathering information about Colombian drug cartels. But the cocaine ended up being sold on the street[55].

In November 1993, the former head of the DEA, Wikipedia:Robert C. Bonner appeared on Wikipedia:60 Minutes and criticized the CIA for allowing several tons of pure cocaine to be smuggled into the U.S. via Venezuela without first notifying and securing the approval of the DEA.[56][57]

In November 1996 a Wikipedia:Miami jury indicted former Venezuelan anti-narcotics chief and longtime CIA asset, General Ramon Guillen Davila, who was smuggling many tons of cocaine into the United States from a Venezuelan warehouse owned by the CIA. In his trial defense, Guillen claimed that all of his drug smuggling operations were approved by the CIA.[58] A Federal grand jury in Miami indicted him but the indictment was sealed so the exact charges were not known. [59]


In the mid 1980s, the CIA created a unit in Haiti, whose purported purpose was anti-drug activity, but was in reality "used as an instrument of political terror", and was heavily involved in drug trafficking. The members of the unit were known to torture Wikipedia:Aristide supporters, and threatened to kill the local head of the DEA. According to one U.S. official, the unit was trafficking drugs and never produced any useful drug intelligence[58]


See also: Wikipedia:Illegal drug trade in Panama
Wikipedia:Operation Just Cause, the U.S. military invasion of Panama in 1989 destroyed large amounts of civilian infrastructure, and took many lives, but failed to capture Wikipedia:Manuel Noriega

In 1989, the United States invaded Wikipedia:Panama as part of Wikipedia:Operation Just Cause, which involved 25,000 American troops. Gen. Wikipedia:Manuel Noriega, head of government of Panama, had been giving military assistance to Contra groups in Wikipedia:Nicaragua at the request of the U.S. which, in exchange, allowed him to continue his drug trafficking activities, which they had known about since the 1960s.[60][61] When the DEA tried to indict Noriega in 1971, the CIA prevented them from doing so.[60] The CIA, which was then directed by future president Wikipedia:George Bush, provided Noriega with hundreds of thousands of dollars per year as payment for his work in Latin America.[60] However, when CIA pilot Wikipedia:Eugene Hasenfus was shot down over Nicaragua by the Wikipedia:Sandinistas, documents aboard the plane revealed many of the CIA's activities in Latin America, and the CIA's connections with Noriega became a Wikipedia:public relations "liability" for the U.S. government, which finally allowed the DEA to indict him for drug trafficking, after decades of allowing his drug operations to proceed unchecked.[60] Operation Just Cause, whose ostensible purpose was to capture Noriega, killed numerous Panamanian civilians, but failed to capture Noriega. Wikipedia:Operation Nifty Package was initiated to find Noriega, who escaped to the Wikipedia:Vatican City in Italy and found asylum in the Wikipedia:Papal Nuncio. The Vatican City was bombarded with what the Wikipedia:United States Navy SEALs considered Wikipedia:psychological warfare, but National Security Advisor Wikipedia:Brent Scowcroft would later point to as "silly, reproachable and undignified."[62] : blaring rock music at "deafening levels", gunning the engines of armoured vehicles against the Vatican fence, and setting fire to a neighboring field and bulldozing it to create a "helicopter landing zone".[61][63] Reportedly the song "I Fought The Law" by Wikipedia:The Clash was played repeatedly.[64]

Reports differ on whether Noriega surrendered to U.S. authorities in Wikipedia:Miami, or was brought to the U.S. to await trial.[60]

In Noriega's residence, a package of organic material was found, One of the charges brought against him was dropped when the package, which had been widely reported as 50 kilograms of cocaine, was revealed to be Wikipedia:tamales.[65]

At his trial, Noriega intended to defend himself by presenting his alleged crimes within the framework of his work for the US Wikipedia:Central Intelligence Agency. The government objected to any disclosure of the purposes for which the United States had paid Noriega because this information was classified and its disclosure went against the interests of the United States. In pre-trial proceedings, the government offered to stipulate that Noriega had received approximately $320,000 from the Wikipedia:United States Army and the Wikipedia:Central Intelligence Agency. Noriega insisted that "the actual figure approached $10,000,000, and that he should be allowed to disclose the tasks he had performed for the United States". The district court held that the "information about the content of the discrete operations in which Noriega had engaged in exchange for the alleged payments was irrelevant to his defense". It ruled that the introduction of evidence about Noriega's role in the CIA would "confuse the jury".[66]

After the trial, Noriega appealed this exclusionary ruling by the judge to the Wikipedia:United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. The Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the government, despite disagreeing with the lower court. It said: "Our review leads us to conclude that information regarding the purposes for which the United States previously paid Noriega potentially had some probative value â€¦ Thus, the district court may have overstated the case when it declared evidence of the purposes for which the United States allegedly paid Noriega wholly irrelevant to his defense". However, the Court of Appeals refused to set aside the verdict because it felt that "the potential probative value of this material, however, was relatively marginal".[66]

Noriega spent decades being transferred from one prison to another: prisons in the United States, in France, and finally in Panama, where he is in prison still, as of May 2012, and expected to be so for a 20 year sentence.[67]


See Wikipedia:Castle Bank & Trust (Bahamas)

Costa Rica[edit]

Wikipedia:Kerry Committee[68]



El Salvador[edit]


Middle East[edit]

In the 1990s, the CIA and DEA were involved in a drug smuggling operation with Lebanese and Syrian drug traffickers, which used Wikipedia:Pan Am aircraft to smuggle opium out of Wikipedia:Frankfurt, Germany[69]

CIA drug trafficking in popular culture[edit]


  • Vinnie Paz (rapper) sings as a quest in Ill Bill's song "A Bullet Never Lies" - "I warned you before about Leviathan and biochips, about CIA distributing crack in the streets"

See also[edit]

Reading list[edit]

  • Cockburn, Alexander St. Clair, Jeffrey (1999). White-out: CIA, Drugs and the Press, Verso Books.
  • Dale-Scott, Peter Marshall, Jonathan (1998). Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America, University of California Press.
  • McCoy, Alfred W. (2003). The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Central America, Columbia, Lawrence Hill & Co..
  • Webb, Gary (1999). Dark Alliance: CIA, the Contras and the Crack Cocaine Explosion, Seven Stories Press,U.S..
  • Ruppert, Michael (2004). Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil, New Society Publishers.
  • Kruger, Henrik. (1980). The Great Heroin Coup: Drugs, Intelligence, and International Fascism., South End Press.
  • Levine, Michael (1993). The Big White Lie: The Deep Cover Operation That Exposed the CIA Sabotage of the Drug War., Thunder's Mouth Pr.
  • Gritz, James (1991). A nation betrayed, Center for action.
  • Levine, Michael (1990). Deep Cover: The Inside Story of How DEA Infighting, Incompetence and Subterfuge Lost Us the Biggest Battle of the Drug War., South End Press.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 CIA Involvement in Drug Smuggling Part 1
  3. (2005) Drugs and democracy in Latin America: the impact of U.S. policy, p. 206, Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  4. Rodney Stich (2007). Drugging America: A Trojan Horse, p. 433-434, Silverpeak Enterprises.
  5. MENA
  6. Alfred W. McCoy, Cathleen B. Reach, and Leonard D. Adams, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (Harper & Row, 1972); Peter Dale Scott, The War Conspiracy (Bobbs-Merrill, 1972); Henrik Krueger, The Great Heroin Coup (South End, 1980); Leslie Cockburn, Out of Control (Atlantic Monthly, 1987). Carlo Cortes, AP, Manila, Oct. 25, 1989.
  7. The CIA and the Drug Trade
  8. Mae Brussel 7:30 YouTube (1975 recording)
  9. Cockburn, Alexander; Wikipedia:Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). "9" Whiteout, the CIA, drugs and the press, New York: Wikipedia:Verso.
  10. Blum, William The CIA and Drugs: Just say "Why not?". Third World Traveller. URL accessed on 30 January 2010.
  11. Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia
  12. Alfred W. McCoy, "A Correspondence with the CIA, New York Review of Books 19:4 (21 September 1972).
  13. "The Secret Team, Part IV: Visiting Vietnam", John Bacher, Peace Magazine Jun-Jul 1988, page 10
  14. Rodney Stich (2008). Defrauding America, Volume 1, p. 381–384, Silverpeak Enterprises.
  15. Joseph J. Trento (2005). The Secret History of the CIA, p. 345–347, Carroll & Graf Publishers.
  16. Douglas Valentine (2004). The strength of the wolf: the secret history of America's war on drugs, Verso.
  17. 9 November 1991 interview with Wikipedia:Alfred McCoy, by Wikipedia:Paul DeRienzo
  18. p. 385 of Wikipedia:The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, by McCoy, with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II, 2003, ISBN 1-55652-483-8
  21. The Spoils of War: Afghanistan's Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade
  22. The Islamist Drug Lords, John W. Warnock,
  23. Cockburn, Alexander and Jeffrey St. Clair. 1998. Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Pluto Press.
  24. Coll, Steve. 2004. Ghost Wars: the Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Books.
  25. Cooley, John. 2002. Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, American and International Terrorism. London: Pluto Press.
  26. McCoy, Alfred W. 2003. The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
  27. Potts, Mark, Nicholas Kochan and Robert Whittington. 1992. Dirty Money: BCCI - the Inside Story of the World’s Sleaziest Bank. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books.
  28. Scott, Peter Dale. 2007. The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire and the Future of America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  29. Yousaf, Mohammad and Mark Adkin. 2004. Afghanistan - The Bear Trap: the Defeat of a Superpower. Havertown, Pa.: Casemate.
  30. Reform Drug Policy report
  31. BBC News A lot depends on what the UN diplomat said, as he is only paraphrased rather than quoted for the statement that makes up the thrust of the evidence for the article and its title. This and other dodging and weaving of facts that have been confirmed repeatedly in other, later sources, makes the piece more creative writing than reporting, but there are some facts here.
  32. Dominic Streatfeild, "Source Material: Interview with Gary Webb", June 2000 [1]
  33. "Crack the CIA" , winner of the 2003 Sundance Online Film Festival
  36. The Spoils of War: Afghanistan's Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade
  37. Stanton, Sam Reporter's suicide confirmed by coroner. Wikipedia:The Sacramento Bee. Archived from source May 7, 2008.
  38. ' 'Webb puzzle pieces don't fit'
  39. CIA Probed in Alleged Arms Shipments; Reports Claim Agency Was Involved in Arkansas-Nicaragua Drug Swaps
  40. Clandestination: Arkansas; Mena Is a Quiet Little Place. So How Did It Become the Cloak-and-Dagger Capital of America?
  41. Truth & consequences.(Chairman Jim Leach of the House Banking and Financial Services Committee plans Mena Airport investigation)
  42. What Was Clinton's Role In 'Mena Mystery!?'
  44. Compromised: Clinton, Bush and the CIA (pages 105,146,216,238,239)
  45. Anthrax and the Politics of Terror
  46. Drugging America: A Trojan Horse (page 72-74)
  47. Was the US public misled about the anthrax attacks?
  48. Anthrax Attacks
  49. begins at time (4:05)
  50. Compromised: Clinton, Bush and the CIA (pages 105,146,216,238,239)
  51. The New Oceania: An Untold Story of the Growing Misuse of U.s. Power Against its people
  52. Drugs, law, and the state (Foreword xxiii)
  53. Rothberg, Donald (9 November 1996). "Investigation Absolves CIA in Alleged Drug Smuggling". Associated Press. </li>
  54. 54.0 54.1 Wikipedia:Peter Dale Scott (2000), Washington and the politics of drugs, Variant, 2(11)
  55. New York Times Service, "Venezuelan general who led CIA program indicted," Dallas Morning News (26 November 1996) p. 6A.
  56. The Fraud of the Fraud
  58. 58.0 58.1 (2001) Russ Kick You are being lied to: the disinformation guide to media distortion, historical whitewashes and cultural myths, p. 132-133, The Disinformation Company.
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.4 Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press (in English), p. 287-290, New York: Verso.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Buckley, Kevin (1991). Panama: The Whole Story (in English), Simon and Schuster.
  62. Bose, Meenekshi. "From Cold War to New World Order: The Foreign Policy of George H. W. Bush", Page 181
  63. By Bill Mears. Ex-Panama dictator loses high court appeal. CNN. URL accessed on 2012-02-05.
  64. Wikipedia:Leon Daniel in Bryan Times, "Installing the Gringo's Guy", Jan. 5, 1990
  65. 50 kilos of Cocaine was tamales Washington Post 23 January,'1990 Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  66. 66.0 66.1 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit. Nos. 92–4687, 96–4471. UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Manuel Antonio NORIEGA, Defendant-Appellant.. Archived from source July 16, 2010. URL accessed on July 16, 2010.
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 CIA Involvement in Drug Smuggling Part 3
  69. Rodney Stich (2008). Defrauding America, Volume 2, p. 9-11, Silverpeak Enterprises.
  71. </ol>

Template:Central Intelligence Agency Template:Conspiracy theories

External links[edit]